从公路到绿色漫步街区——重庆北大资源燕南大道改造设计 A Highway Transformed into a Shared Surface Green Promenade: Reforming Yannan Avenue
发布时间:2019年08月12日        点击数量:1517

WallaceLiu设计事务所(地缘营造)

Studio WallaceLiu

 

位于伦敦的设计工作室WallaceLiu将中国西南部城市重庆的一条长1 km、宽20 m的高速公路改造成一条开放共享的“宜居街道”。设计的核心是打破一般城市公路的单一、线性的构图特征,以非线性的、开放的公共空间尺度和格局取而代之。对城市、业主和设计师而言,项目提供了一个探索中国为促进快速发展而建的基础设施如何转化以培育新兴城市文化的机会。

项目基地所在的燕南大道区域是中国当代城市发展的典型边缘地带,随着城市的扩张而改变了其土地性质。随着开发商北大资源的介入,大道沿线的7个地块将承载大片的高密度住宅。这条道路将贯穿近20 000 m2的新开发的沿街商业,在服务新住宅区同时也要继续服务现存的几栋低保住宅。

WallaceLiu设计事务所在2014年通过竞赛中标取得该项目。参赛期间提出的设计思路是用把整体道路降级为两车道(与陡坎处同宽)的办法,来解决陡坎带来的安全隐患问题。事务所认为“利用现状问题带来的契机对道路进行整体降级,实则是提升整个街区城市生活质量的好机会。对于‘降级’后是否会带来交通拥堵的问题及其他的疑点,可以用临时搭建来扩大人行范围,测试后再整体实施”。

整体共享铺装,作为一个城市公共空间的类型,旨在削减机动车交通在街区规划中的主导地位。模糊了实际道路与周围公园绿地、广场、口袋空间及其他城市休憩设施之间的界限。“我们想把整条公路沿线改造成一个适合步行和玩耍的地方。”

实现这个设想的具体措施包括在机动车道上整体铺设呼应银杏色彩的暖色调的小块混铺花岗岩,并把这个材料做法和纹理延续到人行区域。设计用石材铺装的图案取代了传统的道路划线,用新的沿街排水渠来过渡人行道和车行道的高差,削弱了道路原有的路牙特征。这些做法让设计师得以保留现有基础设施的排水系统,并大大降低新工程的成本。在两个陡崖附近,设计师设计了更平滑的弯道,用大量的凿面花岗岩铺路石形成凹凸不平的减速带,提醒车辆在通过此区域时减速慢行。

“因为不能缩减原有车道的实际宽度,只能从整体设计上通过调整周边环境与道路之间的比例关系,使视觉上机动车道的主导地位消失。因此设计师有意扩大新景观元素的尺度,如公共长椅、公园绿地的漫步道、口袋广场等,帮助车辆和行人对整个区域建立新的印象——一个整体开放的城市慢生活街道的印象。”

道路原有的沿街银杏树,在保留下来后通过增加和穿插其他种类的成年树种,从行道树变成开放公园的一部分,并成为人们在重庆酷暑天气能够继续街道生活的基本要素。除此之外,工作室还设计了一组用吊挂彩色有机玻璃板构成的天篷,这些玻璃板在日光下将其丰富的色彩投射到地面和草皮上,成为复杂而生动的自然阴影。这样做的初衷是调节改善周边塔楼、城市背景和时而灰霾天气带来的压抑的灰色调。

在关键的开放空间,布置一组大尺度的预制钢木座凳,这些座凳的样式是可坐可爬的“波浪”平台。可以用于大型或小型聚会,吸引儿童在上面玩耍,同时它们还充当了新心理信号,提醒司机路过时注意减速。

另一个得以实现的设计想法,是在种植上选择野生花卉和季节性灌木。季节性灌木景观在枯季会显得荒芜,因此在中国当代景观设计中很少使用。该项目的业主非常支持这种设计手法,并帮助设计师在本地寻找到成都的供应商。与供应商建立合作关系后,设计师能够根据本地的品种和库存情况,结合现场的布局进行品种组合和季节搭配,筛选有限但可实现的品种对最终的效果至关重要。

改造工程于2015年夏天动工,中段的全部、部分北部和南部区域在2017年夏天完成,整体在2018年竣工。这个项目中最重要的设计决策是注重公共空间的建成质量和用户体验,而不是创建一处符号性与图案性的物质景观。这条道路现已重新开放,并更名为新九龙步行街。

 

London based design studio WallaceLiu have re-imagined a 20 m wide, 1 km long highway in the South Western Chinese city of Chongqing as a shared surface “livable street” by replacing the delineation and monolithic character of the highway with the language and scale of a public space. For the city, the client and ourselves the designers, the project provided an opportunity to explore how China’s infrastructure, built to facilitate rapid growth, can be post-rationalized to nurture an emerging urban culture.

The site represents the typical periphery of a modern Chinese city that has changed its land use as the city expands. The highway, Yannan Avenue, along which 7 large plots of land were purchased by the state-owned developer PKU Resource, will become the new route through nearly 20,000 msq of street retail and high-density residential compounds and adjacent to existing low-income social housing.

WallaceLiu won the project in 2014 through a competition with an initial idea that the safety issues created by the cliffs could be used to argue that the highway width in its entirety could be reduced to two lanes, to match the width at the pinch points. By resolving these awkward accidental problems”, WallaceLiu argued, “we could change the whole space for the better”. The proposal included temporary solutions to trial the “downgrade” and its impact on traffic and pedestrian behaviour, then, through time, to complete the permanent new kerbs and pavement extensions as funding became available.

The shared surface, as a typology of public space, aims to remove the dominance of vehicles. It provides a blurred boundary between the actual road and its surrounding parks, plaza, compounds and other urban facilities. “We imagined the entire highway to be transformed into a walkable and playful place.”

The resolution of the idea was made through the paving of the highway with a new granite surface, the repaving of pedestrian areas with a similar material, the removal of pedestrian barriers and most signage including road markings and the introduction of a new type of kerbstone that was flush with highway and pavement. Through careful design of the new street levels we were able to retain the existing sub-base and drainage therefore significantly reducing the cost of the new work. Around the two cliffs special safety measures were introduced in the form of smoother turning circles and “cropped” granite setts that create a bump when driven over.

Because the width of the carriageway could not be reduced, we had to engage with its scale through design to remove its visual dominance. We did this by enlarging the new landscape elements such as public benches and planters, the main path through the park and the width of pocket squares to radically alter the visual proportion and impression of the overall place as one walks down the street.”

The existing gingko trees were to be become part of the open park and offer shade alongside newly added mature trees to encourage people use the street in the extreme hot summer of Chongqing. We also designed a series of coloured canopies to help lift the generally grey tone of surrounding towers, framing and filtering views at significant stopping places in the street. They are made with hanging perspex panels mimicking coloured clouds over a pebble-grey coated steel structure to cast complex and vivid shadows on the ground.

Other key design elements include a set of off-site manufactured steel-timber furniture. This seating is designed to form a “wave” of sit-able and climbable decks that can be used for large or small gatherings and that encourage children to play on them. They also act as new psychological signals for traffic to slow down as they pass by.

Another design choice that was realised was our choice to plant wild flowers, perennials and shrubs. They are very rarely used in Chinese contemporary landscape design due to their deciduous nature. Our client was supportive of the approach and helped us find suppliers in Chengdu who we then worked with to understand their available stock and begin to apply these in complex compositions across the site.

The project started on site summer 2015 and the whole middle section and part of the northern and southern sections were completed in summer 2017and overall completion is scheduled in 2018. The most significant design decision was to place an emphasis on the build quality and user experience of the public space rather than to create a symbolic, object and pattern based landscape. The street has now reopened and has been rebranded as the New Kowloon district.

 

 

 

 

 

项目信息

设计公司:WallaceLiu 设计事务所 (地缘营造)

网站:www.wallaceliu.com

项目区位:中国重庆

业主:北大资源集团重庆分公司

项目类别:公共空间

竣工时间:2018

设计团队:刘婕,Jamie Wallace,崔漫舒,徐苏莫

摄影:WallaceLiu 设计事务所(地缘营造)

 

翻译:钱蕾西

校对:孙越

编辑:祖笑艳

 

Project information

Design Company: Studio WallaceLiu

Website: www.wallaceliu.com

Location: Chongqing, China

Client: PKU Resource Chongqing office

Program: Public space

Completion: 2018

Design team: Jee Liu, Jamie Wallace, Manshu Cui, Summer Xu

Photography: Studio WallaceLiu

 

Translator: QIAN Leixi

Proofreader: SUN Yue

Editor: ZU Xiaoya