蝼蛄池塘和皮奇奥游客中心 Kera Pond and Picchio Visitor Center
发布时间:2020年06月05日        点击数量:685

(日)长谷川浩己

(JPN) Hiroki Hasegawa

 

蝼蛄池塘位于日本长野县轻井泽星野地区,沿着从轻井泽野生鸟类保护区森林(文中称为“野鸟之森”)里流淌出的溪流而建。起初人们打算通过截流溪水的方式把这里建成滑冰场,但最近几年放弃了这个想法。现在,这里已经被重新设计为一个“混合动力”滑冰场,通过制冷管道与天然结冰并用,延长冰场的使用时间。在夏天池塘是各种生物的栖息地,到了冬天池塘便成为在现代技术有效管理下的滑冰场。同时,设计方案也充分重视对现有自然过程的描绘,即冬天水池会自然结冰,而人们可以在冰面上滑冰。

“野鸟之森”的地表径流汇集成溪水流入池塘,所以池水的水位在很大程度上取决于季节变动和降雨量变化。因此,设计师安装了一组调控水位的机械装置,并保证水流能够维持自然流动的状态。在规划过程中,负责场地管理运营的NPO皮奇奥(Picchio,以轻井泽“野鸟之森”和蝼蛄池塘为活动中心,进行野生动物观察与保护保育、环境教育与科普宣传等活动的特定非营利活动法人)希望在春季到秋季之间,能够在蝼蛄池塘开展生物观察活动。因此在设计师的精心策划下,池塘不仅成了一个景色美丽且满足功能性的空间,同时还成了生物多样性保护的重要场所。通过水渠和驳岸的设计,使水流即使在冬季也能保持流动,提升生物的栖息条件,保证它们安全越冬。 此外还设计了不冻水渠并对水深进行变化调整,为动物提供了熬过寒冷冬季的栖息场所。

由岛屿和水湾形成的池塘网络也是精心设计的,其中设计师们特别关注了池塘的小气候营造,同时这些池塘和水湾勾勒出变化丰富的滨水游览线路,并向游客展现着叙事性风景。水流调控作为池塘设计的基础,构思通过抬高池底创造岛屿区域,使这里成为春天冰面最早开始融化的地方,亦或是在池塘中央设计岛屿以防止水流缓滞。像这样通过空间的进深和动态等一系列精心的安排,为来到蝼蛄池塘的游客提供了轻松愉悦的游览体验。

环绕池塘展开的园路穿过星野度假村地区,将春榆阳台商店街和“野鸟之森”连接起来。园路曲线柔和、设计精巧,游人可以穿过天然河谷到达河的北岸,即便是单纯的漫步于此,也可以感受在优美环境中轻松愉悦的自然体验。滑冰场没有被围墙或栏杆隔离起来,而是以木栈道环绕水边,这些栈道在冬季可以为滑冰的游人提供扶手和休息场所,在夏季则成为林中漫步的游步道。沿着木栈道和游客中心周围还设置了座椅,并在池塘周围的不同位置设计了观景台和木平台等休息区域,为游客提供可以坐下来放松休息的空间。

 

Located in the Karuizawa Hoshino area, Kera Pond lies along the stream running from the Karuizawa National Wild Bird Sanctuary Forest. Originally, it was intended to be a skating rink created by stemming the flow of the stream, but it had been abandoned until recent years. Now, it has been reborn as a ‘hybrid’ skating rink, partially frozen by a refrigerant pipe and partially naturally frozen, so it can be used constantly for an extended period. In the summer the pond is home to a variety of forest creatures, and in winter it turns into a skating rink, efficiently managed with a modern technology. There is an emphasis on preserving nature’s narrative; the pond freezes in winter, upon which people can ice-skate.

As runoff from the Wild Bird Sanctuary Forest flows into the pond, the pond’s water level fluctuates greatly due to seasonal change and rainfall variability. Therefore, a mechanism has been installed to control the water level, while water appears to flow naturally. During the planning process, Picchio, the wildlife interpreter who manages and operates the site, requested that the pond be utilized as an area for them to run observation programs between spring and fall. Owing to our careful planning, the pond has taken form not only as a picturesque and functional space, but a host of biodiversity conservation too. We designed waterways and revetment to create waterflow even in winter in such a way that facilitates the inhabitation of living organisms, who can now make it through the winter. We created an area for them to stay throughout these colder months by creating an unfreezable channel and varying the water’s depth.

The pond’s network of islands and coves has been carefully designed with particular attention to its microclimate, allowing visitors to appreciate the changeability of its course, creating a narrative along its path. Control of the waterflow serves as the basis for the pond’s design, a concept which informed the idea of creating a land area by raising the bottom of the pond, where ice tends to start melting at the beginning of spring, or making islands in the middle of the pond in order to avoid stagnant water. The sense of depth and dynamism, born of this careful arrangement, offers an enjoyable experience for the pond’s visitors.

The path which frames the pond cuts through the Hoshino area, connecting Harunire Terrace and the Wild Bird Sanctuary Forest. This gently winding road was so designed that it crosses the natural bank on the north side, creating an environment where walking itself is an enjoyable activity. The ice rink is not enshrouded by fences or railings, instead, a boardwalk encircles the water, used as a sitting area or handrail for skaters in winter and for strolling during summer months. We have also provided benches along the boardwalk and around the visitor center, and created sitting areas in various places around the pond such as the observation deck and the terrace, where visitors can sit back and relax.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

项目信息

项目位置:轻井泽星野地区

面积:3200m2

场地类型:滑冰场

设计团队:

建筑设计:克莱因·戴沙姆建筑设计事务所(KDa

土木工程设计:SACO咨询有限公司

照明设计:都市环境照明(ICE

结构设计:KAP有限公司

建成日期:20167

照片版权:吉田诚

 

翻译:庄杭

校对:孙越 马嘉

编辑:刘玉霞

 

Project information

Project Location: Karuizawa Hoshino area

Size: 3 200 m2

Field: Skating rink

Team:

Architecture: Klein Dytham architecture (KDa)

Structural Design: KAP Co.,Ltd.

Lighting Design : Illumination of City Environment (ICE)

Structural Design: KAP Co.,Ltd.

Date of Completion: 2016.07

Photo credit: Makoto Yoshida

 

Translator: ZHUANG Hang

Proofreader: SUN Yue, MA Jia

Editor: LIU Yuxia