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北京市平原区受胁鸟类栖息地识别和评价
黄越, 顾燚芸, 李雪珊, 闻丞
北京镜朗生态科技有限公司
摘要:
在北京分布的受胁鸟类主要分布在平原区,而平原区为城市发展的主要区域,因此,在城市管理中融入受胁鸟类保护的内容十分必要。以北京市平原区分布的24种受胁鸟类为研究对象,以鸟类对栖息地的需求为分类依据,结合国家土地利用分类标准,采用人工目视解译法,在北京市平原区的高清卫星影像图上识别出5类一级鸟类栖息地和17类二级鸟类栖息地,得到北京市平原区鸟类栖息地分布图。使用24种受胁鸟类的空间分布模型掩膜鸟类栖息地分布,得到24种受胁鸟类的预测空间分布,叠加之后获得受胁鸟类丰富度分布格局,结果显示,水域是受胁鸟类丰富度最高的栖息地。将受胁鸟类丰富度分布格局与北京市国家级和市级自然保护区分布叠加进行空缺分析,结果显示:1)北京市的自然保护区多分布在山区,不能有效保护受胁鸟类;2)受胁鸟类的保护与平原区的城市建设、绿地管理关系密切。采用分区统计方法,计算各类栖息地中分布的平均鸟类种类数,作为栖息地保护行动优先级指标,得出湖泊、水库、坑塘、滩地、沼泽地等湿地区域是具有最高保护优先级的栖息地类型,在保护实践资源充足的情况下,应对各类栖息地开展综合保护。该研究首次为北京城市区域受胁鸟类保护提出空间参考和管理建议。
关键词:  受胁物种  鸟类栖息地  北京市平原区  城市绿地  保护空缺
DOI:
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
The Identification and Assessment of Habitats of Threatened Birds in Plain
HUANG Yue, GU Yiyun, LI Xueshan, WEN Cheng
Beijing Jinglang Ecological Technology Ltd
Abstract:
The threatened birds distributed in Beijing are mainly located in plain areas, which are reserved for urban development. Therefore, it is quite necessary to incorporate threatened bird protection in the urban management. This paper focuses on the studies of the 24 species of threatened birds in the plain areas of Beijing. It has identified five categories of I-class avian habitats and 17 II-class avian habitats in the plain areas of Beijing, using artificial visual interpretation of the high definition satellite images according to the habitat selection of each species, as well as the national standard for classification of land use to get the distribution map of avian habitats. Then, it applies the species distribution model of the 24 threatened birds to mask the distribution map of the avian habitats, which produces the predicted occupied range for each species in the plain areas of Beijing. The richness pattern of threatened birds is generated by overlaying the predicted occupied ranges of the threatened birds. The result reveals that the highest richness of birds occurs in water bodies. GAP analysis is done by overlaying the richness pattern of the threatened birds and the National/Municipal Natural Reserves (NNR/MNR) maps. We have found that first, the NNR/MNR of Beijing are mainly distributed in the mountainous areas, which cannot effectively protect the threatened birds. Second, the protection of the threatened birds is closely related to urban construction and green space management in the plain areas. Using the method of zonal statistics, we have figured up the average number of species of threatened birds distributed in each type of habitats, as the indicator for conservation priority. We have found that pools, reservoirs, ponds, bottomlands, shoals and marshes are priorities for conservation. So it is crucial to synthetically protect the avian habitats under permissible conditions. This study is the first of its kind to put forward suggestions of space reference and management for the protection of the threatened birds in Beijing urban areas.
Key words:  threatened species  avian habitats  plain areas of Beijing  urban green spaces  conservation GAP
引用本文:黄越,顾燚芸,李雪珊,闻丞.北京市平原区受胁鸟类栖息地识别和评价[J].风景园林,2019,26(1):32-36.
HUANG Yue,GU Yiyun,LI Xueshan,WEN Cheng.The Identification and Assessment of Habitats of Threatened Birds in Plain[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2019, 26(1):32-36.