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国际自然流淌河流保护的政策工具与成效比较
周语夏, 刘海龙
清华大学
摘要:
为进一步完善中国河流保护的政策体系,通过对美国、新西兰、加拿大与澳大利亚自然流淌河流保护的政策工具的颁布背景、提名方式、管理主体、保护内容、限制条件及优劣势等方面进行综述、比较,深入剖析自然流淌河流保护在国际上的经验与困境,对比各国政策的成效性。研究发现美国与加拿大的政策更为成功,其自上而下与自下而上相结合的管理模式及鼓励非政府机构、社区与原住民参与的政策机制有利于提升河流保护的公众积极性,而新西兰与澳大利亚过于严苛的保护政策不利于兼顾河流多元价值的保护与利用。最后,建议中国普查自然流淌河流资源,并将其纳入自然保护地体系。
关键词:  风景园林  自然流淌河流  美国野生与风景河流  新西兰野生与风景河流  加拿大遗产河流  澳大利亚野生河流
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2020.08.0042.07
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
Comparison of Policy Tools and Effectiveness of International Free-Flowing Rivers Protection
ZHOU Yuxia, LIU Hailong
Tsinghua University
Abstract:
This paper summarizes and compares the free-flowing rivers protection policy tools in the United States, New Zealand, Canada and Australia for the purpose of further improving the policy system of river protection in China. Through analyzing the background, nomination procedures, management agencies, protection contents, restrictions, advantages and disadvantages in these countries, it explores the international experiences, dilemma and efficiency of the policy tools in free-flowing rivers protection. It discloses that the top-down and bottom-up management modes of the United States and Canada, as well as the mechanism of encouraging the participation of non-government organizations, communities and indigenous people, are conducive to improving the public enthusiasm for river protection. In contrast, the overly strict protection policies of New Zealand and Australia are adverse to balancing the protection and utilization of rivers’ multi-values. Finally, it proposes to investigate the free-flowing rivers in China and include them in the protected area system.
Key words:  landscape architecture  free-flowing rivers  U.S. wild and scenic river  New Zealand wild and scenic river  Canadian heritage river  Australian wild river
引用本文:周语夏,刘海龙.国际自然流淌河流保护的政策工具与成效比较[J].风景园林,2020,27(8):42-48.
ZHOU Yuxia,LIU Hailong.Comparison of Policy Tools and Effectiveness of International Free-Flowing Rivers Protection[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2020, 27(8):42-48.