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多因素影响下景中村群体特征与规划启示——以西湖风景区为例
陆建城, 罗小龙
南京大学
摘要:
随着中国风景名胜区数量的不断增加,大量村落被划入其中成为景中村,形成区别于一般村庄的特征。在此背景下,以西湖风景名胜区内9个景中村为研究样本,通过3轮实地座谈、问卷获取一手资料,总结在风景名胜区法规型、功能型和管理型因素影响下的景中村空间利用、社会关系、产业发展3个方面的特征:景中村群体空间利用呈现“非均衡增长与收缩、功能结构内外分异、公地悲剧滋生、空间失配”的特征;社会关系呈现“人群结构中心复杂化、人群集聚瞬时化、邻里关系弱化”的特征;产业发展呈现“三产比重增高、转型动力各异、集体经济收入来源单一、月收入资源型分层”的特征。在此基础上,从公共参与适宜性转变、居住环境改善、产业多向联动、服务设施分层分类配置等方面提出景中村规划优化建议。
关键词:  风景园林  多因素  景中村  群体特征  西湖风景区
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2020.08.0091.06
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(编号2018YFD1100805)
The Characteristics and Planning Inspirations of Villages in Scenic Area under Influence of Multi-factors: A Case Study of West Lake Scenic Area
LU Jiancheng, LUO Xiaolong
Nanjing University
Abstract:
With the continuous increase in the number of scenic spots (protected areas) in China, a large amount of villages have been included within scenic areas, presenting characteristics that distinguish them from other villages. Taking nine villages in the West Lake Scenic Area as case study, this research summarizes the characteristics of these villages in spatial utilization, social relations and industrial development under the influence of the regulatory, functional and managerial factors of the scenic area, based on the first-hand data through three rounds of field interviews and questionnaires. The result shows that the spatial utilization of the villages presents the characteristics of “unbalanced growth and contraction, internal and external differentiation of functional structure, tragedy in the use of public land, and spatial mismatch”. The social relations have the characteristics of “complex population structure center, instantaneous crowd population, and weakened neighborhood relations”. The industrial development presents the characteristics of “increased proportion of the tertiary industry, diversified driving forces for transformation, single collective economy and resource-oriented stratification of monthly incomes”. On this basis, it puts forward suggestions on the optimization of the planning for villages in scenic areas including the transformation of the public’s participation in the suitability transition, improvement of living environment, multidirectional linkage of industry, stratified and classified allocation of service facilities.
Key words:  landscape architecture  multi-factors  village in scenic area  group characteristic  West Lake Scenic Area
引用本文:陆建城,罗小龙.多因素影响下景中村群体特征与规划启示——以西湖风景区为例[J].风景园林,2020,27(8):91-96.
LU Jiancheng,LUO Xiaolong.The Characteristics and Planning Inspirations of Villages in Scenic Area under Influence of Multi-factors: A Case Study of West Lake Scenic Area[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2020, 27(8):91-96.