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基于水鸟栖息地保育的城市滨水生境网络构建与优化策略:以昆山市为例
汪洁琼1, 李心蕊2, 王敏1, 葛俊雯3
1.同济大学;2.上海市城市规划设计研究院;3.上海市园林设计研究总院有限公司
摘要:
城市生物多样性作为评判城市自然系统健康与否的重要指标之一,日益受到学界与业界的关注。从水鸟栖息地、滨水生境网络、生物多样性支持服务提升的角度切入,探讨城市自然系统整体规划的新思路与途径。以江苏省昆山市为例,通过文献爬梳与野外调研,归纳并识别建成环境中影响水鸟生存的关键因素,构建昆山市滨水水鸟栖息生境适宜性评价指标体系,运用ArcGIS软件对现状滨水生境进行适宜性分析的空间制图,构建昆山滨水生境网络并提出水鸟栖息地营造要点。研究提出以水鸟为指示物种的滨水生境网络构建的三大要点:1)识别生境源地,并加强对重要生境源地的保育;2)利用连通度高、水面率高的适宜空间构建滨水生境廊道;3)增加“踏脚石”战略点,完善中心城区水鸟栖息生境功能性连通。旨在为建成环境规划设计中的生物多样性保育工作提供理论依据、评价标准及技术支撑,以生境网络为依托构建辩证的人–水–鸟的健康关系。
关键词:  风景园林  城市自然系统  生物多样性  水生境  生态系统服务  网络构建
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.06.0076.06
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(编号 2017YFC0505705)
Establishing and Optimization Strategy of Urban Waterfront Habitat Network Based on Waterfowl Habitat Conservation: A Case Study of Kunshan City
WANG Jieqiong1, LI Xinrui2, WANG Min1, GE Junwen3
1.Tongji University;2.Shanghai Urban Planning and Design Research Institute;3.Shanghai Landscape Architecture Design & Research Institute
Abstract:
As an important indicator to evaluate the health of the urban natural system, urban biodiversity has received more and more attention from scholars and practitioners. From the perspectives of waterfowl habitats, waterfront habitat network and supporting ecosystem services of biodiversity, this research discusses a new approach for urban natural system comprehensive planning. It selects the Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province as the case of study, summarizes and identifies key indicators that influence the survival of waterfowls in built environment through literature review and on-site investigation, establishes a suitability analysis evaluation system of waterfowl habitats in Kunshan City, completes the existing waterfront habitat suitability mapping with ArcGIS, builds up a waterfront habitat network, and finally proposes strategies for building waterfowl habitats. It proposes three critical ideas for building up the waterfront habitat network for waterfowls, including 1) the identification of habitat sources and conservation of key habitat source areas; 2) the establishment of waterfront habitat corridors based on the suitable areas of high connectivity and high water coverage of lakes; 3) the addition of “stepping-stones” to functionally increase the connectivity of waterfowl habitats in the urban areas. This research aims to provide theoretical basis, evaluation standards and technical support for the conservation and increase of biodiversity in built environment, and build up a healthy relationship of people, water and birds based on the habitat network.
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban natural system  biodiversity  water habitat  ecosystem services  network establishing
引用本文:汪洁琼,李心蕊,王敏,葛俊雯.基于水鸟栖息地保育的城市滨水生境网络构建与优化策略:以昆山市为例[J].风景园林,2021,28(6):76-81.
WANG Jieqiong,LI Xinrui,WANG Min,GE Junwen.Establishing and Optimization Strategy of Urban Waterfront Habitat Network Based on Waterfowl Habitat Conservation: A Case Study of Kunshan City[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(6):76-81.