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基于手机信令数据的上海市社区公园服务半径及影响因素研究
刘颂1, 杨莹1, 贾虎2
1.同济大学;2.上海市公园管理事务中心
摘要:
公园绿地作为城市中主要的自然空间,一直以来按照公园规模及其相应的服务半径形成的公园绿地服务半径覆盖率来衡量其布局的合理性。但在现实中,由于难以获取居民实际行为规律,公园的实际服务范围与设定的服务半径是否一致无法被精准验证和分析。手机信令数据等新数据源包含居民生活活动空间信息及公园使用数据,能够突破传统数据的制约。选取上海市中心城区42座社区公园,采集2019年5月9天(包含4个周末和5个工作日)内到访公园的游客的手机信令数据,通过追踪游客的驻留地信息,计算各公园的实际服务半径。发现上海市社区公园的实际服务半径普遍较大,平均为5 879.9 m。对社区公园服务半径的影响因素进行分析发现,社区公园服务半径与公园使用满意度和空间活力呈显著正相关关系,与公园的区位呈负相关关系,而与公园面积和交通便利度的相关性不显著。社区公园建设应该提高公众参与度,从“空间建造”转变为“场景营造”,提高公园品质;结合周边的公共空间进行功能与空间的融合,提高公园周边的空间活力。利用手机信令数据对公园服务范围进行精细化识别,能够提升公园规划的合理性。
关键词:  风景园林  手机信令数据  社区公园  服务半径  上海中心城区  大数据
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.06.0088.06
分类号:TU985.1
基金项目:
Research on Service Radius and Influencing Factors of Community Parks in Shanghai Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data
LIU Song1, YANG Ying1, JIA Hu2
1.Tongji University;2.Shanghai Park Management Affairs Center
Abstract:
As the main natural space of a city, parks play an irreplaceable role in the life of community residents. For a long time, the rationality of a park layout is measured according to the park size and its service radius. However, traditional methods are unable to accurately verify and analyze whether the actual service scope of a park is consistent with its set service radius, because the actual behavior rules of residents are hard to obtain. New data sources, such as mobile phone signaling data, contain massive spatial information of residents’ living activities and park use data, which can break through the constraints of traditional data. This research selects 42 community parks in downtown Shanghai, and collects the mobile phone signaling data of people who visited the parks in nine days in May 2019 (including four weekends and five working days). It calculates the actual service radius of each park by tracking the residents’ moving behaviors. It has found that the average service radius of community parks in Shanghai is generally large (5,879.9 m). By analyzing the influencing factors of community park service radius, it was found that the community park service radius has a significant positive correlation with park use satisfaction and spatial vitality, a negative correlation with park locations, and no significant correlation with the park’s area and traffic convenience. Community park construction should encourage public participation, transform from “space construction” to “scene construction”, and improve the quality of parks, and incorporate the surrounding public space, integrate the functions and spaces to improve the vitality of the space around the park. Elaborate identification of the service area of a park with mobile phone signaling data can promote the rationality of park planning.
Key words:  landscape architecture  mobile phone signaling data  community park  service radius  downtown Shanghai  big data
引用本文:刘颂,杨莹,贾虎.基于手机信令数据的上海市社区公园服务半径及影响因素研究[J].风景园林,2021,28(6):88-93.
LIU Song,YANG Ying,JIA Hu.Research on Service Radius and Influencing Factors of Community Parks in Shanghai Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(6):88-93.