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以山为苑 因谷成景:西夏贺兰山离宫的空间格局
张瑶, 刘庭风, 易敏
天津大学
摘要:
贺兰山离宫作为西夏建造的宫苑,是重要的皇家活动场所,代表了当时最高技艺水平和审美价值,保留了西夏园林的历史信息。为发掘曾被尘封、尚未被认识的西夏园林与文化,在考古调查报告的基础上,综合地方志、诗词等文献,基于空间格局的视角,对比分析计算机山川模拟与实景,探究贺兰山离宫的空间分布特征。研究发现:11处西夏离宫遗址可分为4组,均呈现以山为苑的功能格局、因谷成景的风景格局。贺兰山离宫作为猎苑核心,在西夏备战务实的军事思想下,呈现“交通要道-山下防御关口-山上宫殿-深山密林猎场”的成组分布的功能格局;核心离宫位于谷心,由山岭围合,依山就势建设,山路串联沿线之自然和人工景观,在高山崇拜的审美思想和堪舆思想的指导下,呈现山岭环抱的风景格局。对明晰西夏时期皇家宫苑形象,补充10—13世纪中国的宫苑建设案例与思想具有历史意义。
关键词:  风景园林  西夏  贺兰山  离宫  空间格局
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.07.0121.06
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
Mountain as Garden, Valley as Scenery: The Spatial Pattern of Tangut Helan Palaces
ZHANG Yao, LIU Tingfeng, YI Min
Tianjin University
Abstract:
Helan Palaces in Helan Mountain is built by Tangut period, which were important places for royal activities. They represent the highest technical level and aesthetic value at that time, and retain historical information of Tangut garden. In order to explore Tangut’s gardens and culture, which had not yet been recognized, on the basis of archaeological investigation report, combined with local chronicles, poetry and other literature, comparative analysis between the computer simulation and real scenes, this paper explores the spatial distribution characteristics of palaces in Helan Mountain on the perspective of spatial pattern. The eleven Tangut Palaces are divided into four groups, showing the functional pattern of the mountain as the garden and the landscape pattern of the valley as the scenery. The conclusion is of historical significance to clarify the image of the Imperial Palace in Tangut period and to supplement the cases and ideas of the palace construction in the 10th-13th century in China.
Key words:  landscape architecture  Tangut  Helan Mountain  palaces  spatial pattern
引用本文:张瑶,刘庭风,易敏.以山为苑 因谷成景:西夏贺兰山离宫的空间格局[J].风景园林,2021,28(7):121-126.
ZHANG Yao,LIU Tingfeng,YI Min.Mountain as Garden, Valley as Scenery: The Spatial Pattern of Tangut Helan Palaces[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(7):121-126.