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非正规框架规划设计方法
(美)戴维·加弗努尔, 张晨笛
宾夕法尼亚大学
摘要:
随着正规和非正规住区之间的社会鸿沟日益扩大,城市功能逐渐失调。为了应对这些挑战,城市采用传统的规划方法、推进社会住房计划和“场地和服务项目”。然而,由于非正规城市化进程的性质和规模,这些方法取得的成效很有限。作为笔者的著作《未来非正规住区规划与设计:塑造自建城市》的概述,该研究通过提供设计规划标准、空间组织的暗示与表现机制,阐明了如何指导以非正规发展形式为主导的城市的可持续发展。根据多年的经验和研究,引入了非正规框架(IA)的概念,作为非正规城市化的设计和管理方法。在住区形成的早期阶段,随着(非正规)住区演变成更大的城市系统的一部分,IA规划设计方法有着灵活的转化形式,其来源于以往的一些研究和实践项目的规划和设计原则及成果。通过分析拉丁美洲的典型案例,IA阐明了全球非正规城市共同面临的挑战。这些挑战包括:1)(居住)场地不足更易促使非正规增长;2)缺乏流动性和可达性;3)难以获得用于服务、就业和便利设施的公共或社区土地以及公共空间;4)不平衡的城市系统使非正规区域高度依赖正规城市。IA还涉及当代城市化的重要问题,即环境压力。它还强调了以公共/社区和私人合作的创新形式引导城市化进程,以及提倡使用促进包容与和平的文化方式的必要性。IA的应用实施迫在眉睫。只要在有政治意愿、具有透明性和技术支持的非正规住区,面临非正规城市化进程的挑战,IA就可以提供简单直接的解决方案。
关键词:  偏见  尝试  非正规框架  多尺度规划设计回应方式  转变
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2020.08.0024.15
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
The Informal Armature Approach
(USA) David Gouverneur, ZHANG Chendi
the University of Pennsylvania
Abstract:
With the growing social divide between formal and informal settlements, cities become dysfunctional. To deal with these challenges, cities have utilized conventional planning methods, social housing, and “Site and Services programs”. Due to the nature and magnitude of the informal urbanization process, however, they have had only limited success. This article provides an overview of my book, Planning and Design for Future Informal Settlements: Shaping the Self-Constructed City. This work sheds light on how to guide the sustainable growth of the predominantly informal city by providing criteria, clues for spatial organization, and performative mechanisms. Drawing from years of experience and research, it introduces the notion of Informal Armatures (IA) as a design and managerial approach to informal urbanization. Beginning from early stages of occupation, the approach also allows for agile transformations as the settlements evolve to become part of much larger urban systems. The IA approach derives from previous studies and projects, considering their planning and design principles and practical results. While analyzing emblematic Latin American examples, IA illustrates challenges common to the informal city globally. These challenges include: 1) the inadequacy of the sites where informal growth tends to occur, 2) deficient mobility and accessibility, 3) the difficulty of securing public or communal land required to provide services, jobs, amenities, and public spaces, 4) unbalanced urban systems, making informal areas highly dependent of the formal city. IA also deals with environmental strains, important issues in contemporary urbanism. It additionally highlights the need for innovative forms of public/communal and private cooperation to orient the urbanization process, as well as means to foster a culture of inclusion and peace. IA is a call for urgent action. Providing that there is political will, transparency, and technical skills to accompany the process of informal urbanization, IA offers simple, straight forward solutions to the challenges of informal settlements.
Key words:  biases  attempts  informal armatures  muti-scaler responses  transformations
引用本文:(美)戴维·加弗努尔,张晨笛.非正规框架规划设计方法[J].风景园林,2021,28(8):24-38.
(USA) David Gouverneur,ZHANG Chendi.The Informal Armature Approach[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(8):24-38.