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精准城市形态对街道温度的影响测度与设计应对
叶宇, 殷若晨, 胡杨, 方家
同济大学
摘要:
随着城镇化进程步入“下半程”,基于绿色可持续理论的气候适应性城市设计日益受到重视,城市形态作为城市设计的核心议题也同步受到关注。但既有研究缺少精准的城市形态数据,同时忽略了人本尺度城市形态特征的效应。在此背景下,以北京市中心区作为研究范围,开展兼具大规模和高精度的研判。一方面利用 Landsat 8 遥感影像数据基于辐射传输方程法计算街道地表温度;另一方面整合街景、建筑形态、兴趣点等多源数据,从自上而下视角的高精度城市形态以及自下而上视角的人本尺度街道空间两方面出发开展研究,精准测度城市形态与温度的耦合关系。统计分析显示,在自上而下的形态视角方面,街道的空间位置、周边建筑密度、容积率、功能多样性、蓝绿空间的距离等因素,均对街道温度有显著性影响;在自下而上的人本尺度方面,街道绿视率、建筑界面占比越高,遮阴效果越好。相关认知不仅助力于街道设计中的温度效能提升,还能根据街道属性制定差异化的街道设计策略,为气候适应性城市设计的深化提供城市形态视角的支持。
关键词:  风景园林  城市设计  城市形态  街道温度  多源城市数据
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.08.0058.08
分类号:TU984.11+3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(编号 52078343,51878428);上海市自然科学基金面上项目(编号 20ZR1462200);高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室开放课题(编号 2020010102)
Measuring the Impacts of Fine-Scale Urban Forms on Street Temperatures and Design Responses
YE Yu, YIN Ruochen, HU Yang, FANG Jia
Tongji University
Abstract:
As the urbanization process has entered the “second half”, the climate-responsive urban design based on the green sustainable theory has attracted increasing attention. The urban form, as the core of urban design, has also been brought into the focus. However, existing studies lack detailed urban form data and ignore the effect of urban morphological characteristics at the human scale. In this context, this research conducts a large-scale and high-precision study in the central urban area of Beijing. It applies the Landsat 8 remote sensing image data to calculate street temperatures based on the radiative transfer equation method. It also integrates multisource data, such as streetscape data, building form data and point of interest data, to build a multi-level urban form regression model to quantify the effects of top-down morphological perspective and bottom-up human scale on street temperatures. Statistical analysis shows that from the top-down morphological perspective, street spatial location, surrounding building density, floor area ratio, functional diversity, and distance between blue and green space have significant impacts on street temperatures. With regard to the bottom-up human scale, it shows that the higher the proportion of street green visibility and building interface, the better shading effect. These findings can help improve the efficiency of specific street design, make differentiated street design strategies according to street attributes, and facilitate the deepening of climateresponsive urban design from the perspective of urban morphology.
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban design  urban form  street temperature  multi-sourced urban data
引用本文:叶宇,殷若晨,胡杨,方家.精准城市形态对街道温度的影响测度与设计应对[J].风景园林,2021,28(8):58-65.
YE Yu,YIN Ruochen,HU Yang,FANG Jia.Measuring the Impacts of Fine-Scale Urban Forms on Street Temperatures and Design Responses[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(8):58-65.