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北京公园用户类型刻画
王志芳1, 康佳1, 徐敏1, 林广思2
1.北京大学;2.华南理工大学
摘要:
城市公园是公众开展游憩活动的重要场所,如何理解不同用户的需求进而提升公园的游憩服务能力是未来城市公园更新与管理的重点之一。然而现有针对城市公园用户的研究多从单因素角度理解公园使用者的差异,缺乏综合多种人口与行为特征对城市公园用户类型的系统刻画。以北京11个城市公园为研究对象,采用问卷调查法和SPSS统计分析法,综合考虑用户人口统计学背景、公园访问行为和游憩目的,整体刻画用户类型。研究发现:1)城市公园的用户类型可以刻画为3类,即“个人康健型(年长、高频、短时)”“社交休闲型(青年、中频、中时)”和“家庭出游型(中年、低频、长时)”;2)3类用户对公园的选择和偏好存在差异;3)3类用户使用公园的满意度不同,“家庭出游型”用户满意度最低,“社交休闲型”用户满意度中等,“个人康健型”用户满意度最高。研究结果对城市公园的精细化设计和管理提出直接建议:从3种用户类型出发细分城市公园游憩功能,并强化针对“家庭出游型”和“社交休闲型”用户需求的设计策略。
关键词:  游憩服务  用户类型  规划设计  景观管理  城市公园  风景园林
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.09.0096.07
分类号:TU985.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(编号 41871153)
Characterizing User Groups in Beijing Parks
WANG Zhifang1, KANG Jia1, XU Min1, LIN Guangsi2
1.Peking University;2.South China University of Technology
Abstract:
Urban parks are important places for the public to carry out recreational activities. How to understand the needs of different users and then improve the parks’ recreational service capabilities is one of the focuses of future urban park renewal and management. However, existing researches on urban park users largely underscore the differences of park users from the single factor perspective, and lack a systematic description of the types of urban park users by integrating multiple demographic and behavioral characteristics. Citing 11 urban parks in Beijing as the objects, this research, using the questionnaire survey and SPSS statistical analysis methods, comprehensively considers users’ demographic characteristics, visit-related behaviors and recreation purposes to integrally characterize the user groups. The research finds: 1) The typology of urban park users can be summed up as “personal health type (elder, high frequency, short-time stay)”, “social leisure type (youth, mid frequency, medium-time stay)” and “family outing type (middle age, low frequency, long-time stay)”; 2) The three user groups are diversified in the selection and preference of the parks; 3) The three types of users vary in the satisfaction with using the parks. The user satisfaction of the “family outing type” is the lowest, that of the “social leisure type” is the moderate, and that of the “personal health type” is the highest. The research provides direct suggestions for the detailed design and management of urban parks, which are to segment the recreation functions of the parks from the three user types, and to strengthen the design strategy for the needs of the “family outing type” and “social leisure type” users.
Key words:  recreational services  user group  planning and design  landscape management  urban park  landscape architecture
引用本文:王志芳,康佳,徐敏,林广思.北京公园用户类型刻画[J].风景园林,2021,28(9):96-102.
WANG Zhifang,KANG Jia,XU Min,LIN Guangsi.Characterizing User Groups in Beijing Parks[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(9):96-102.