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公园城市目标下城市公园绿地开放共享理念的核心要义和科学路径
王维奇, 刘晨晖, 陈延菲, 张云路
北京林业大学
摘要:
【目的】城市绿地开放共享是源于人民生活方式和休闲运动方式改变的深刻变革,落脚于服务公园城市建设的伟大实践。但在实践过程中缺乏宏观思维和细节考量,没有充分发挥公园开放共享的最大价值,因此科学系统总结其核心要义并提出科学路径,对于各地政府的落地实践具有重要意义。【方法/过程】通过分析总结当前公园绿地开放共享工作各阶段所产生的问题,系统提出公园城市目标下公园绿地开放共享理念的核心要义和科学路径,归纳公园绿地开放共享理念的三大核心要义,即有温度的开放共享、有深度的开放共享和有维度的开放共享。同时从要义出发,分别从公园空间体系、产业、管理参与3个方面提出公园绿地开放共享的路径。【结果/结论】为全国各地公园绿地开放共享工作提供了理论参考和借鉴,为城市公园绿地的高质量建设、高品质使用和高效能治理,以及实现公园城市的发展目标提供科学支撑和指引。
关键词:  公园城市  开放共享  核心要义  人民需求  城市业态  公众参与  科学路径
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202306280293
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家林业和草业局重点项目“京津冀生态率先突破科技协同创新中心运行”(编号 2023132050)
Core Meaning and Scientific Path of the Concept of Open Sharing of Urban Park Green Spaces Under the Goal of Park City
WANG Weiqi, LIU Chenhui, CHEN Yanfei, ZHANG Yunlu
Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
[Objective] The open sharing of urban green space is a profound change originating from the change of people’s way of life and leisure and sports, and rooted in the great practice of serving the construction of Park City. However, in the process of practice, there is a lack of macroscopic thinking and detailed consideration, making it unable to fully play the maximum value of open sharing of parks. Therefore, it is of great significance for local governments to summarize the core essence of and put forward a scientific path for open sharing of urban green space. [Methods/process] This research firstly analyzes and studies the new requirements and new challenges of urban park green space construction in the post-epidemic era. After that, the research reviews the possible problems and hidden dangers behind the implementation of open sharing work around the world and, based on the concept of Park City, summarizes the core essence of the concept of open sharing of green space, and puts forward a scientific path for the open sharing of urban park green space. This research proposes the innovation of concepts and meanings under the goal of Park City from the following three aspects. 1) Open sharing with warmth. Put the “demand side” at the center of open sharing and, through the coupling of the green open space system and people’s living circle, bring life into parks and greenness into life, so as to enhance people’s sense of happiness, gain, participation and honor. 2) Open sharing with depth. Expand the scope of products and services inside parks through developing various business formats outside, so as to better play the publicity and display function of parks, redefine the role of parks, and ultimately create a new economy, new scene and new brand of parks. 3) Open sharing with dimension. Emphasize the flexibility and multi-dimensionality of urban governance, strengthen the important position of pluralistic subjects in urban governance, and establish a new governance mode and transmission system that can ensure multi-party co-governance, thus realizing the sustainable development of park green space. Meanwhile, based on the goal of Park City, the research puts forward the scientific path for open sharing of urban park green space, which is hereby detailed as follows. 1) Borderless space — form a fully covered open space system to fill the gap in the service radius of parks in high-density urban areas; secondly, while focusing on top-level design and macro planning, finely design small-scale block and small and micro spaces to promote the perfect fusion of city life and good ecology, so as to realize the coupling of citizen demand and park supply, thus achieving the high unity of people, city, environment and industry. 2) Borderless industry — linkage between parks and urban business formats. Build “outdoor shopping malls” relying on small clusters that involves the layout of products for such business formats as visitor serving, urban public services, culture, sports and amusement, so as to realize the compatibility and coexistence of leisureoriented and consumption-oriented visitors. Develop “indoor parks” . Create a park-like indoor characteristic area by integrating park elements into commercial venues. The shared green space can satisfy the functional needs of crowd distribution and visitor rest during the day, and the needs of surrounding residents for rest, interaction and recreation at night, thus realizing the timesharing of the commercial venues concerned. 3) Borderless participation — fitting between park use and citizens’ will. Breaking through the existing public participation dilemma requires a “top-down” optimization and transformation. Take such measures as introducing relevant laws and regulations to guarantee the right of participation, improving the participation mechanism, clarifying the responsibility system, and expanding public participation to enhance and stimulate the participation of residents, so as to contribute to the open sharing of urban park green spaces, and at the same time bring more power into park and city construction, thus truly achieving the vision of “building people’s city relying on people”. [Results/conclusion] “Park City” is a new model of urban construction in China in the new era of ecological civilization. The open sharing of urban park green spaces not only further enriches and deepens the concept of public, fair and inclusive construction of Park City, but also contributes to the high-quality development of Park City. The discipline of landscape architecture should give full play to its disciplinary advantages, guide local governments and all sectors of society to accurately understand changes, scientifically adapt and actively seek changes, avoid potential problems and hidden dangers in open sharing of urban park green spaces, innovate the concept of open sharing, promote the progression of open sharing from the planning and design of park green spaces to the full-cycle whole-process creation, operation and management of them, and realize the standardization, scientization and rationalization of open sharing of urban green spaces. This will provide scientific support and guidance for the high-quality construction, use and governance of urban park green spaces and the realization of the beautiful vision of Park City.
Key words:  Park City  open sharing  core essence  people’s needs  city format  public participation  scientific path
引用本文:王维奇,刘晨晖,陈延菲,张云路.公园城市目标下城市公园绿地开放共享理念的核心要义和科学路径[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):28-34.
WANG Weiqi,LIU Chenhui,CHEN Yanfei,ZHANG Yunlu.Core Meaning and Scientific Path of the Concept of Open Sharing of Urban Park Green Spaces Under the Goal of Park City[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):28-34.