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基于生态位需求的高密度城区鸟类微生境选择研究—以上海市浦东新区世纪大道地区为例
干靓, 郭光普
同济大学
摘要:
选择上海市浦东新区世纪大道沿线地区作为样地,基于鸟类群落微生境调查,研究鸟类的生态位需求和实际的微生境选择,重点分析鸟类对高密度城区特殊微生境—建筑物/构筑物的选择偏好。结果表明:1)鸟类群落的巢居空间和食性空间生态位需求以及实际微生境主要位于乔木层和地被层;2)立体硬质界面具备成为城市野生鸟类生境的潜力,可作为现有城市生物生境系统的有益补充;3)针对部分城市野生鸟类利用建筑物孔洞筑巢的习性,建议可在建筑立面、雕塑和街道家具的设计中有意识地预留孔洞,为鸟类提供巢居空间。
关键词:  鸟类  微生境选择  生态位  高密度城区
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2017.11.0086.07
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目“基于生物多样性绩效测评的高密度城镇化地区生态空间格局优化研究”(批准号51408426);同济大学高密度人居环境生态与节能教育部重点实验室自主科研项目
Microhabitat Selection for Wild Birds in High-density Urban Areas Based on Niche Demand—Case Study in Century Avenue Area, Pudong New District, Shanghai
GAN Jing, GUO Guang-pu
Tongji University
Abstract:
Based on the bird surveys in blocks along Century Avenue, Pudong New District, Shanghai, this paper analyzes the niche demand and microhabitat selection, explores the preference of birds on the hard surface of buildings/structures as special microhabitat in high density urban areas. The results show that: 1) The tree canopy and herb surface provide main food and nest spatial niche, which are also verified by the analysis of microhabitat selection; 2) Vertical hard interfaces can also provide potential microhabitats for wild birds in the city, which could be used as a supplement to the existing biological habitat system; 3) Due to the demand of some wild birds to build their nests in urban building/structure holes, it is suggested to reserve certain holes in the design for building facade, sculpture and street furniture to provide potential space for the related birds' nest.
Key words:  birds  microhabitat selection  niche  high-density urban areas
引用本文:干靓,郭光普.基于生态位需求的高密度城区鸟类微生境选择研究—以上海市浦东新区世纪大道地区为例[J].风景园林,2017,24(11):86-92.
GAN Jing,GUO Guang-pu.Microhabitat Selection for Wild Birds in High-density Urban Areas Based on Niche Demand—Case Study in Century Avenue Area, Pudong New District, Shanghai[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2017, 24(11):86-92.