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关于(荒野)殖民化
著:(德)狄德瑞奇·布鲁斯1, 译:王应临2, 校:崔庆伟2
1.宾夕法尼亚大学;2.北京林业大学
摘要:
由于人类体验自然的渴望日益增长,在政治和实践层面,在城市中提供接触自然的机会显得越来越必要。关于“城市荒野”的思想和规划旨在提供一种特殊的自然体验。鉴于不同荒野思想之间存在冲突,风景园林师必须设法了解已有的荒野认知及其含义。通过 3 个荒野类别—“未知荒野”“特定荒野”和“过程荒野”,探讨发展千年的荒野理念,并提出“殖民化”(colonisations)概念作为理解荒野理念发展的一个关键。自然过程伴随着动植物对空间的殖民,而人类进入和占有空间的殖民过程则包含生理、心理和精神 3 个层面的内容。空间命名是一种特殊的、具有精神和象征意味的殖民化形式。例如,人类在城市中发现野生植被,称其为“野性自然”或“城市荒野”。然而,如今大多数(尤其官方)的荒野定义中均排除了人类干扰:一旦被殖民,真正的荒野就不复存在。科学研究对自然过程的殖民化已取得很多成果,但对于人类有关自然和荒野的认知和态度了解并不多。对于风景园林师来说,这有助于更好地理解如何“基于自然进行设计和建造”,对创造令人满意的景观也非常重要。探讨与“城市荒野”有关的论述、规划和设计观点及思想。 由于人类体验自然的渴望日益增长,在政治和实践层面,在城市中提供接触自然的机会显得越来越必要。关于“城市荒野”的思想和规划旨在提供一种特殊的自然体验。鉴于不同荒野思想之间存在冲突,风景园林师必须设法了解已有的荒野认知及其含义。通过 3 个荒野类别—“未知荒野”“特定荒野”和“过程荒野”,探讨发展千年的荒野理念,并提出“殖民化”(colonisations)概念作为理解荒野理念发展的一个关键。自然过程伴随着动植物对空间的殖民,而人类进入和占有空间的殖民过程则包含生理、心理和精神 3 个层面的内容。空间命名是一种特殊的、具有精神和象征意味的殖民化形式。例如,人类在城市中发现野生植被,称其为“野性自然”或“城市荒野”。然而,如今大多数(尤其官方)的荒野定义中均排除了人类干扰:一旦被殖民,真正的荒野就不复存在。科学研究对自然过程的殖民化已取得很多成果,但对于人类有关自然和荒野的认知和态度了解并不多。对于风景园林师来说,这有助于更好地理解如何“基于自然进行设计和建造”,对创造令人满意的景观也非常重要。探讨与“城市荒野”有关的论述、规划和设计观点及思想。
关键词:  自然过程  自然发展  自然体验  城市景观  荒野概念
DOI:
分类号:TU986
基金项目:
About Colonisations
Author:(DEU) Diedrich Bruns1, Translator: WANG Yinglin2, Proofreader: CUI Qingwei2
1.Kassel University;2.Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
As people’s longing for nature-experience is growing, providing access to nature in the city is becoming increasingly relevant both politically and in practice. The idea of and planning for “Urban Wilderness” promises a special kind of nature-experience. Acknowledging how different perceptions create conflict, landscape architects must try to understand which wilderness perceptions exist and what they might imply. Employing three categories, “Unknown Wilderness”, “Specific Wilderness” and “Process Wilderness”, this essay discusses ideas of wilderness that have developed over millennia until today. For the purpose of this essay, the term “colonisation” serves as key to understanding how ideas of wilderness develop. Natural processes include colonisation of space by plants and animals. Processes of people entering and taking ownership of areas include colonising space physically, mentally and spiritually. Naming areas is a special form of mental and symbolic colonisation, for example, when people “discover” wild looking vegetation in the city and calling it “untamed nature”, or “Urban Wilderness”. However, most current and particularly official definitions of wilderness exclude human interference: Once colonised, “True Wilderness” ceases to exist. Scientific studies have contributed much knowledge about natural processes and colonisation but little about people’s ideas of and attitudes towards nature and wilderness. For landscape architects it would be important to learn more about how “designing and constructing with (ideas of) nature” might contribute to providing desirable landscapes. This essay discusses some (of the many) attitudes and thoughts related to discourses, planning and design for and of “Urban Wilderness”.
Key words:  natural process  nature development  nature experience  urban landscape  wilderness concept
引用本文:著:(德)狄德瑞奇·布鲁斯,译:王应临,校:崔庆伟.关于(荒野)殖民化[J].风景园林,2019,26(8):8-19.
Author:(DEU) Diedrich Bruns,Translator: WANG Yinglin,Proofreader: CUI Qingwei.About Colonisations[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2019, 26(8):8-19.