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城市野境: 城市区域中野性自然的保护与营造
曹越1, (美)万斯·马丁2, 杨锐 *1
1.清华大学;2.世界自然保护联盟——世界自然保护地委员会
摘要:
城市野境是城市内部或周边区域中自然过程占主导的土地,其中人类开发和控制程度相对较低,允许在一定程度上发生自然演替和生态过程,各类野生生物能够与人类繁荣共存。城市野境在重新连接人与自然、促进人类身心健康、保护生物多样性、维持生态系统服务方面具有重要和独特的价值。基于文献综述与案例研究,提出并阐释了保护与营造城市野境的 4 种途径,包括保护、修复、设计与融合,即在城市保护地中保护野性自然、再野化部分城市区域、在城市公园中营造类荒野景观以及在城市空间中系统性融入野性自然。建议在中国城市规划与城市设计中,融入野性自然保护与修复的理念,进一步探索城市野境保护与营造的理论与方法。
关键词:  风景园林  城市设计  自然保护地  城市野境  荒野  野性  再野化
DOI:
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目(编号 14ZDB142);国家社会科学基金(编号 18BGL178)
Urban Wildness: Protection and Creation of Wild Nature in Urban Areas
CAO Yue1, (USA)Vance G. Martin2, YANG Rui*1
1.Tsinghua University;2.IUCN/WCPA
Abstract:
Urban wildness refers to the land dominated by natural processes in or near urban areas. In these areas, human exploitation and control are relatively low, allowing natural succession and ecological processes to occur to a certain extent, and thus allowing for wildlife to coexist with humans. Urban wildness has an important and unique value in reconnecting man with nature, promoting human physical and mental health, conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services. Based on literature review and case studies, this paper puts forward and explains four approaches to protect and create urban wildness, including protection, restoration, design and integration, which refer to protecting wild nature in urban protected areas, rewilding specific urban areas, designing wildscapes in urban parks, and systematically integrating the wild nature into the urban areas. It is suggested to integrate the protection and restoration of wild nature into the urban planning and design in China, and further explore the theories and methods of urban wildness protection and creation.
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban design  protected areas  urban wildness  wilderness  wildness  rewilding
引用本文:曹越,(美)万斯·马丁,杨锐 *.城市野境: 城市区域中野性自然的保护与营造[J].风景园林,2019,26(8):20-24.
CAO Yue,(USA)Vance G. Martin,YANG Rui*.Urban Wildness: Protection and Creation of Wild Nature in Urban Areas[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2019, 26(8):20-24.