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基于实验与扎根理论的保护地视听感知研究——以武陵源世界自然遗产地为例
许晓青1, 吴竑2, 冯婧婕1
1.同济大学;2.宾夕法尼亚州立大学
摘要:
视听交互作为声环境感知研究的重要方面,已有大量的研究从定量角度进行了实证。仅有少数研究从定性角度揭示视听交互机理。以武陵源世界自然遗产地的声景为研究对象,基于前序研究中得出的“半自然环境中视听匹配度较低”这一结论,选取视听匹配准确度较低的一段半自然声景,通过视听实验得到72份有效样本。运用扎根理论分析揭示了视听交互作用的规律:1)视听匹配与优势感知有关,视听相符情况下被试者更易由听觉引导视觉,而视听不符的情况下则更易由视觉引导听觉;2)视觉判断影响声景评价,尤其是对于嘈杂的–安静的这一情绪感知,视觉判断比听觉判断作用更大;3)声源类型是判断环境真实性的要素,视觉元素中的旷奥以及声音的远近感也是辅以判断环境真实性的因素。通过研究,对武陵源世界自然遗产地及类似的保护地中现存的声环境和视觉环境管理问题提出了建议。
关键词:  风景园林  自然遗产地  声景  视听交互  语义分析  扎根理论
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.08.0119.06
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金(编号 51808394);浦江人才计划(编号 18PJC113)
Research on Audio-Visual Perception in Protected Areas Based on Experiments and Grounded Theory: A Case Study of Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site
XU Xiaoqing1, WU Hong2, FENG Jingjie1
1.Tongji University;2.Pennsylvania State University
Abstract:
As an important aspect of acoustic environment perception research, the audio-visual interaction has been put under extensive studies from the quantitative perspective. Only a few qualitative studies have revealed the audio-visual interaction mechanism. Taking the soundscape of Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site as the object, this research, based on the conclusion of “low audio-visual matching in semi-natural environment” obtained in the previous studies, selects the semi-natural soundscape with low audio-visual matching accuracy to obtain 72 effective samples via audio-visual experiments. It analyzes the audio-visual interaction mechanism based on the grounded theory. The results reveal: 1) The audio-visual matching is related to the advantage perception. In audio-visual conformity, the subject’s hearing is more likely to guide the vision. In the case of audio-visual inconsistency, the vision is more likely to guide hearing. 2) Visual judgment affects acoustic evaluation. For the noisy-quiet emotional perception in particular, visual judgment is more important than auditory judgment. 3) The sound source type is an element to judge the environmental authenticity. The breadth of visual elements and the distance of sounds are also complementary factors to judge environmental authenticity. Based on these findings, this research puts forward suggestions on the management of the existing acoustic and visual environments in the Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site and similar protected areas.
Key words:  landscape architecture  natural heritage site  soundscape  audio-visual interaction  semantic analysis  grounded theory
引用本文:许晓青,吴竑,冯婧婕.基于实验与扎根理论的保护地视听感知研究——以武陵源世界自然遗产地为例[J].风景园林,2021,28(8):119-124.
XU Xiaoqing,WU Hong,FENG Jingjie.Research on Audio-Visual Perception in Protected Areas Based on Experiments and Grounded Theory: A Case Study of Wulingyuan World Natural Heritage Site[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(8):119-124.