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北京海淀皇家园林群布局理法研究
朱强
北京林业大学
摘要:
位于北京“三山五园”地区东部的海淀皇家园林群兴起于清康熙、鼎盛于乾嘉、衰亡于道咸,具有规模庞大、造园技艺高超、水网密布、古今巨变等特点。从区域风景规划的视角利用图档与文献全面复原了该区域在道咸时期的水–园–田–村–营–路体系,考证其演变历程,统计建设规模并分析其整体的布局理法。研究表明:畅春、圆明二园及马厂连缀成为庞大的皇家禁区并占据主体;宅园与赐园因分列海淀台地上下而形成水旱园差异;园外稻田区在绿化造景和寺庙点缀下彰显皇家特色。最终得出园林、水系、稻田与村民之间在风景与社会上具有紧密关联的结论,并对大遗址保护与利用提出拓展范围、修复关键水系、发展文化公园及构建遗址公园群的4点方略。
关键词:  三山五园  皇家园林  复原  布局理法  田园景观  大遗址
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.09.0115.06
分类号:TU986.1
基金项目:北京学研究基地开放课题(编号 BJXJD-KT2020-YB03)
Research on the Layout Method of Haidian Imperial Garden Cluster of Beijing
ZHU Qiang
Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
Located in the east of the “Three Hills and Five Gardens” area of Beijing, Haidian Imperial Garden Cluster originated in the Emperor Kangxi period, flourished in the Emperor Qianlong and Emperor Jiaqing period and declined in the Emperor Daoguang and Emperor Xianfeng period of the Qing Dynasty. It is characterized by large scale, superb skills, dense water network and great changes over the time. From the perspective of regional landscape planning, this research makes overall spatial restoration of the water-garden-field-village-camp-road system during the 1821–1860 period by using historical archives, infers its evolution, counts its construction scale, and analyzes its layout method. The result shows that Changchun Yuan, Yuanming Yuan and Ma Chang were connected into a huge imperial forbidden zone and occupied the main part. The difference in waterscape between private gardens and granted gardens was caused by their locations with the Haidian Tableland. The landscape of paddy fields showed imperial characteristics through temple gardens and afforestation. Finally, it put forward the conclusion that there was a close landscape and social connection between the gardens, water system, fields and villagers as well as four conservation and utilization strategies of great site protection: enlarge the range, renovate key parts of the water system, develop cultural parks and establish ruins park cluster.
Key words:  Three Hills and Five Gardens  imperial garden  restoration  layout method  agricultural and rural landscape  great heritage relic
引用本文:朱强.北京海淀皇家园林群布局理法研究[J].风景园林,2021,28(9):115-120.
ZHU Qiang.Research on the Layout Method of Haidian Imperial Garden Cluster of Beijing[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(9):115-120.