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韩国儒家九曲园林地域特征及其山水观探究
彭鸿绪1, 吴昊1, (韩)卢载铉2
1.福州大学;2.韩国又石大学
摘要:
朱子理学传入朝鲜半岛后,韩国儒家园林—“九曲园林”随之产生,并形成了地域性的九曲文化。现有研究集中于九曲文化层面,未能全面探析九曲园林的地域特征与山水观。在溯源韩国九曲园林的基础上,解析其营建的时间演化、空间布局特征,并从典型案例玉山九曲的文化背景、营建历程、空间格局、景观意境等方面探析其地域特征及其蕴含的山水观。研究表明:1)九曲园林从高丽末期开始兴起,到朝鲜时代中期达到全盛,其主要分布于长白山脉、洛东江岸旁;2)韩国儒林通过师法武夷营建的玉山九曲,具有“三弯九曲”“一曲一景”的空间格局;3)《玉山九曲歌》中的景观意境蕴含着物我一体的哲学思想及性理学修行观。因此,韩国九曲园林不仅证明了朱子理学的在地性演化,同时也反映了中国文化自信,是中国儒家思想在海外传承与发展的直观表现。
关键词:  风景园林  朱子理学  韩国九曲园林  地域特征  山水观
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.09.0121.06
分类号:TU986.6
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(编号 51778145);福建省教育厅中青年教师教育科研项目(编号 JAT190032); 福州大学校人才基金(编号 XRC-20013)
Research on Regional Characteristics of South Korean Confucian Gugok Gardens and Landscape Concept
PENG Hongxu1, WU Hao1, (KOR) Rho Jaehyun2
1.Fuzhou University;2.Woosuk University
Abstract:
After Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism was introduced into the Korean Peninsula, the Korean Confucian gardens — “Gugok Gardens” emerged accordingly and formulated the regional Gugok culture. The existing researches focus on the culture of Gugok, but fail to fully explore the regional characteristics and landscape concept of Gugok Gardens. On the basis of tracing the origin of Gugok Gardens in South Korea, this research analyzes the time evolution and spatial layout characteristics of the construction, and probes into the landscape concept from the cultural background, construction process, spatial pattern and landscape artistic conception of Ok-san Gugok, as a typical case. The result shows that 1) Gugok Gardens began to rise at the end of the Goryeo period and reached the peak in the middle of the North Korea period. They were mainly distributed in Changbai Mountains and the banks of Nakdong River. 2) Korean Confucian scholars followed the example of Ok-san Gugok built by Wuyi, showing the spatial pattern of “three curves and nine bends” and “one tune and one scene”. 3) The landscape artistic conception in Ok-san Gugok Song contains the philosophical thought of the integration of thing and self and the view of the practice of Neo-Confucianism. Therefore, Korean Gugok Gardens not only testify the local evolution of Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism, but also reflect China’s cultural self-confidence, which is an intuitive expression of the inheritance and development of Chinese Confucianism overseas.
Key words:  landscape architecture  Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism  Korea Gugok Gardens  regional characteristics  landscape concept
引用本文:彭鸿绪,吴昊,(韩)卢载铉.韩国儒家九曲园林地域特征及其山水观探究[J].风景园林,2021,28(9):121-126.
PENG Hongxu,WU Hao,(KOR) Rho Jaehyun.Research on Regional Characteristics of South Korean Confucian Gugok Gardens and Landscape Concept[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(9):121-126.