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澳大利亚植物园中的城市生物多样性设计与保护策略
杨寓棋, (新西兰)玛丽亚·伊格纳季耶娃, (澳大利亚)安德丽亚·盖诺
西澳大利亚大学
摘要:
由于景观起源、物理环境条件和社会经济发展的差异,在南北半球,学术界对城市生物多样性及其与生态设计方法的相互作用有着不同的理解。数千年来,澳大利亚本土植物群落在这片大陆繁衍生息,形成了生物多样性极高的独特景观。植物园融合自然和人造元素,具有科研和保育功能,其设计与规划反映了科学知识随时间变化的动态特征,也为研究不同社会群体在过去如何利用和重视植物提供了的独特视角,植物园的生态设计方法反映了重视和保护生物多样性的新愿景。以澳大利亚为例,研究并回顾了植物园在保护生物多样性方面的益处,讨论了为展示生物多样性植物园设计重点的变化,分析了澳大利亚植物园的设计历史、澳大利亚本土生物多样性以及以生物多样性为重点的设计解决方案。为了解澳大利亚当地生物多样性和制定植物园示范保护与策略提供研究框架,为重新思考和加强植物园设计中的“生物多样性”提供新视角。
关键词:  风景园林  生态设计  野生动物友好设计  城市生物多样性  本土植物保育  原始残存植被
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2022.01.0034.15
分类号:TU985.12
基金项目:蜂蜜产品合作研究中心项目(编号 20160042)
Design and Conservation Strategies for Urban Biodiversity in Australian Botanic Gardens
YANG Yuqi, (NZL) Maria Ignatieva, (AUS) Andrea Gaynor
University of Western Australia (UWA)
Abstract:
Due to the differences in landscape origins, physical environment conditions, and socio-economic development, there are different approaches to understanding urban biodiversity and the way it intersects with ecological design approaches in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Australian native plant communities have thrived in this continent for millennia and formed a unique landscape of very high biodiversity. Botanic gardens are venerable institutions that have evolved through the years, adapting to cultural and social demands. The planning and design of botanic gardens are affected by political, economic and social perceptions as well as by individual designers. Botanic gardens reflect the dynamic character of scientific knowledge, and changes in the aesthetic expressions of human cultures over time. Botanic gardens therefore offer a unique vision of how different social groups have used and valued plants in the past. The recent ecological design approaches of botanic gardens reflect a new vision of valuing and protecting biodiversity. This paper reviews the biodiversity benefits of botanic gardens. It discusses the changes of design focus to demonstrate biodiversity, using case studies in Australia. The design history of Australian botanic gardens, Australia’s native biodiversity, and biodiversity-focused design solutions are discussed and analysed. It offers a framework for understanding local biodiversity and developing designing strategies for demonstration preservation strategies in botanic gardens. The research outcomes of this paper provides a new angle which allows to rethink and reinforce “biodiversity” in designing a botanic garden.
Key words:  landscape architecture  ecological design  wildlife friendly design  urban biodiversity  conservation of native plants  remnant vegetation
引用本文:杨寓棋,(新西兰)玛丽亚·伊格纳季耶娃,(澳大利亚)安德丽亚·盖诺.澳大利亚植物园中的城市生物多样性设计与保护策略[J].风景园林,2022,29(1):34-48.
YANG Yuqi,(NZL) Maria Ignatieva,(AUS) Andrea Gaynor.Design and Conservation Strategies for Urban Biodiversity in Australian Botanic Gardens[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2022, 29(1):34-48.