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基于点触热力分析的景观要素认知评价——以北京林业大学为例
许冬, 徐阳洋, 胡楠, 李运远
北京林业大学
摘要:
公众的审美认知偏好评价是指导景观营建的重要内容,在景观评价方法得到广泛应用并指导实践的趋势下,明确公众关注内容可以推动人景弥合,对促使公众形成空间认同感具有重要意义。以北京林业大学冬季校园景观为例,将可量化的数学关系引入景观视觉评价之中,通过实景照片语义分割技术计算景观要素面积占比,得到景观整体特征,结合点触式调研和热力分析,探讨公众的景观要素认知趋向。研究发现:1)人们普遍关注自然、互动类景观要素,关注内容易受到景观要素实际占比影响;2)除受占比影响外人们多关注具有明确形态差异,或直接利用文字信息表达景观语义的景观要素;3)未到访过实地的受访者多关注互动、装饰性要素,到访过实地的受访者则会关注科技、文化类要素。通过构建点触式调研的方法,减少了受访者对于问卷的理解偏差及排斥心理,为适用于公众参与的景观设计更新提供新的视角。
关键词:  校园景观  美学认知  热力分析  景观偏好  感知评价
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2022.12.0106.07
分类号:TU986.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(编号 52008022);北京市科技计划项目(编号 D171100007117003)
Cognitive Evaluation of Landscape Elements Based on Point-Touch Heat Analysis: A Case Study of Beijing Forestry University
XU Dong, XU Yangyang, HU Nan, LI Yunyuan
Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
The evaluation of the public’s aesthetic perception preferences is an important part of landscape construction guidance. In the context of the extensive application of landscape evaluation methods for practice guidance, clarifying the public’s focus of attention can promote the bridging of human and landscape, which is of great significance in promoting the public to form a sense of spatial identity. Taking the winter campus landscape of Beijing Forestry University as an example, this research has quantifiable mathematical relationships introduced into the visual evaluation of landscape. The overall characteristics of landscape is obtained by calculating the area proportion of landscape elements based on the semantic segmentation of real photos and, in combination with point-touch research and heat analysis, the public’s cognitive tendency of landscape elements are explored. The research finds that: 1) People generally pay attention to natural and interactive landscape elements, and the focus of their attention is likely to be influenced by the actual proportions of landscape elements; 2) apart from the influence of element proportion, people typically pay more attention to landscape elements with clear morphological differences, or those with semantic meaning expressed directly through textual information; 3) respondents who have not paid a field visit to a certain landscape pay more attention to interactive and decorative elements of the landscape, while those who have paid a field visit pay more attention to technological and cultural elements. By developing a point-touch research method, the research reduces respondents’ bias or rejection to the questionnaire method, and provides a new perspective for the renewal of landscape design applicable to public participation.
Key words:  campus landscape  aesthetic cognition  heat analysis  landscape preference  perceptual evaluation
引用本文:许冬,徐阳洋,胡楠,李运远.基于点触热力分析的景观要素认知评价——以北京林业大学为例[J].风景园林,2022,29(12):106-112.
XU Dong,XU Yangyang,HU Nan,LI Yunyuan.Cognitive Evaluation of Landscape Elements Based on Point-Touch Heat Analysis: A Case Study of Beijing Forestry University[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2022, 29(12):106-112.