|【目的】城市生态空间兼具多种生态系统服务与多元生态价值。评估生态系统服务、识别生态系统服务簇有助于揭示不同服务的空间分布格局，为武汉生态空间建设提供可行性参考，制定差异化碳汇能力提升策略，以助力武汉市生态文明建设，为实现“双碳”目标提供科学依据和实践路径。【方法】以武汉市为例，选取与城市生态空间自然基底相关的碳储量、生境质量、水源涵养、水质净化、土壤保持5类模块，运用ArcGIS软件和InVEST模型分别进行生态系统服务评估和空间制图，使用自组织特征映射（self-organizing feature mapping, SOM）聚类模型识别生态系统服务簇，并着重考虑碳汇与4类生态系统服务的组合关系。【结果】根据生态系统服务簇的分布区域与组合模式，识别出生态均衡簇、生态保育簇、游憩水源簇、水土保育簇、人居环境簇、生态脆弱簇6类，再根据碳汇发育程度划分为碳汇保育区、碳汇潜力区、碳汇稀缺区3类分区。【结论】基于碳汇能力提升重新审视生态系统服务簇，为分类、分区提升碳汇能力提供了一种新的思路和方法，对优化城市生态空间布局具有重要意义，更有助于绿色低碳发展，推动“双碳”目标实现。
|关键词: 生态系统服务 城市碳汇提升 城市生态空间 景观规划 SOM 聚类模型 空间决策支持
|基金项目:国家自然科学基金“消减空气颗粒物的城市灰绿空间‘源－流－汇’耦合模拟研究”（编号 52178041）；国家自然科学基金“‘自然途径’下滨江蓝绿空间的生态修复分区和优先级构建研究——长江大保护武汉段为例”（编号 52208060）
|Integrated Enhancement of Carbon Sink Capacity for Urban Ecological Spaces Based on Ecosystem Service Cluster Analysis
DAI Fei, JIANG Peiyi, WEN Chen
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
|[Objective] With multiple ecological values, urban ecological space integrates various ecological regulating functions such as carbon sequestration and sink enhancement, water conservation, climate regulation, and soil and water conservation, among which carbon sequestration and sink enhancement has become a hotspot of global research in the context of the United Nations’ response to climate change. How to enhance the capacity of carbon sequestration and sink enhancement in diversified urban ecological spaces, and give full play to the synergistic effect of multiple regulating services, has become an issue that must be addressed in realizing the national carbon neutrality strategy and sustainable development. Evaluating ecological services in urban ecological space can help visualize the spatial distribution and evolution pattern of ecosystem services, intuitively understand the current ecological service capacity, quantify ecological value, and identify clusters of ecosystem services, which can reveal the numerical combination pattern and trend of individual services, and make it easy to examine the environmental resources and development trend of different regions, so as to maximize ecological benefits. Therefore, it is of great significance to optimize the layout of urban ecological space and contribute to the construction of ecological civilization by taking carbon sink enhancement as a starting point, comprehensively considering various types of ecosystem services, and proposing planning strategies for urban ecological space. [Methods] Taking Wuhan City as an example, this research screens out five major modules related to the natural background of urban ecological space, namely carbon storage, habitat quality, water conservation, water purification and soil conservation, and evaluates individual ecosystem services using the five modules in the InVEST model. After that, the research adopts the SOM model for a cluster analysis, and finally identifies the number of ecosystem service clusters by considering the two dimensions of “minimization of intracluster and inter-cluster differences” and typicality of ecological spatial features. Based on this, the research imports the data obtained into the ArcGIS platform to carry out spatial mapping, and converts the values of ecosystem services into a graphic language, which helps understand the differences in the capacity of the analysis of the five categories of ecosystem services and their spatial distribution, and bring in a carbon sink perspective. The research finally revisits the ecosystem service clusters with a focus on the combined relationship between carbon and other ecosystem services. The above methodology can help visualize the spatial distribution of ecosystem services and the combination patterns of ecosystem service clusters, thus providing guidance for planning strategies and a basis for spatial decision-making. [Results] According to their spatial distribution patterns and combination patterns, six types of ecosystem service clusters are identified, namely the ecological balance cluster, ecological conservation cluster, recreational water cluster, soil and water conservation cluster, habitat cluster and ecological fragility cluster. Among them, the ecological balance cluster and the ecological conservation cluster are distributed in the forested mountainous areas in northern and northeastern Wuhan, with high carbon storage, good habitat quality and synergistic development of ecosystem services, which belong to the carbon sink conservation area; the recreational water cluster and the soil and water conservation cluster are distributed in the main urban area as well as the suburban water bodies and cultivated lands, with strong water conservation and purification capacity and a certain carbon sink potential, which belong to the carbon sink potential area; the habitat cluster and the ecological fragility cluster are mostly distributed in the peri-urban areas with frequent human activities and around water bodies, which are featured by weak ecosystem services and belong to the carbon sink scarcity area. [Conclusion] Reviewing the ecosystem service clusters from the perspective of the degree of carbon sink development can provide a new idea and method for the classification of different types of urban ecological spaces and carbon sink enhancement strategies. The method proposed in this research is highly operational and has significant results, which can effectively identify the distribution pattern of carbon sinks in urban ecological space, thus helping formulate differentiated carbon sink enhancement strategies, maximize the benefits of ecosystem services, and drive the synergistic development of ecosystem services, which is of great significance in optimizing the urban ecological spatial layout, and more importantly, can help realize the green and low-carbon development, provide a scientific basis for the construction of urban ecological civilization, and promote the achievement of the carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals. This method can be widely used in similar researches on urban ecological spatial planning related to the enhancement of carbon sinks, and can also help other cities to realize the coordinated and sustainable development of the ecological environment and the economy and society.
|Key words: ecosystem service urban carbon sink enhancement urban ecological space landscape planning SOM clustering model spatial decision support