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“双碳”背景下中国风电景观的立地布局特征及类型
刘轶, 曾琬莹, 施雅蓉, 王倩娜
四川大学
摘要:
【目的】在“双碳”背景下,风电已成为继火电、水电之后的第三大主力电源。科学、系统地认识中国风电景观立地布局特征和类型,可为后续相关研究提供理论支持。【方法】以2020年中国陆上风电景观为研究对象,提出“风电景观布局要素”体系,基于空间自相关分析、多环缓冲分析等方法,从自然、功能设备、人地实践3类要素分析风电景观立地布局特征;并选取地形地貌特征、周边景观类型、土地利用类型、环境条件4个景观特征因子作为分类依据,遵循自上而下的多等级分类思路,系统划分中国风电景观类型。【结果】结果显示:1)风电景观立地布局呈多元化、区域性分布,部分区域存在与生态环境敏感区交叠等问题;2)风电景观可划分为山地、滨海等七大类,山地耕地、滨海林地等26子类。【结论】基于此,提出基于风电景观布局要素的机理与影响、基于风电景观类型的评估与对比、风电景观评价标准及技术规范3个拟开展的研究方向。在一定程度上弥补了现阶段中国风电景观立地条件及类型等基础研究的空白,同时也拓宽了风电景观作为文化景观的研究边界,以期为未来风电快速发展背景下的自然景观资源保护和利用、风电景观规划设计实践提供支撑。
关键词:  “双碳”战略  文化景观  风电景观  立地布局特征  类型学
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202212150705
分类号:TU986.2
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金“成渝城市群绿色基础设施多尺度空间格局分析及空间规划方法研究”(编号 31500581);成都市科技项目“成都市公园城市建设政策体系及推进策略研究”(编号 2019-RK00-00261-ZF)
Site Layout Characteristics and Types of Wind-Power Landscape in China Under the Background of “Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality”
LIU Yi, ZENG Wanying, SHI Yarong, WANG Qianna
Sichuan University
Abstract:
[Objective] Under the background of China’s “Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality” policy, wind power has become the third largest power source after thermal power and hydropower. It is not difficult to predict that renewable energy facilities, such as wind turbines will increasingly appear in urban and rural landscape, which will bring many research tasks under the framework of “renewable energy landscape” to the field of landscape architecture. A scientific and systematic understanding of the site layout characteristics and types of wind-power landscape in China can provide basic and theoretical support for subsequent related research. [Methods] This research takes the onshore wind-power landscape of China in 2020 as the research object, proposes the framework of “ layout elements of wind-power landscape” , and analyses the site layout characteristics of windpower landscape in China based on the three elements of nature, functional equipment and human-land practice by such methods as Getis-Ord General G spatial autocorrelation analysis, and multiple ring buffer analysis. Following a top-down multi-level classification approach, the research selects the four landscape character factors of terrain and geomorphic features, surrounding landscape types, land use types and environmental conditions as classification criteria to systematically classify the types of wind-power landscape in China. [Results] The results show that: 1) The site layout of wind-power landscape is characterized by diversification and regional distribution. As to natural elements, the elevation distribution belongs to low value aggregation, while the slope and aspect distribution belong to high value aggregation. As to functional equipment elements, wind turbine forms with obvious landscape layout characteristics can be summarized into five types: linear type, dominant linear type, grid type, matrix type, and plum-blossom type. As to human-land practice elements, it has been found that the noise, light and shadow safety protection regulations for some wind-power projects need to be strengthened. 2) Wind-power landscape can be divided into 7 categories such as mountain and coast wind-power landscape and 26 subcategories suc慨渠摡獳挠慭灯敵楴湡⁩䍮桯極湳愠ⱡ⁲慡湢摬⁥愠牡敮晤攠牡敮湤挠散晡潳牴⁡瑬栠敦灲牥潳瑴攠捬瑡楮潤渠⁷潩普⁤渭慰瑯畷牥慲氠污慮湤摳獣捡慰灥攮†牔敨獥漠異牲捯数獯⁲慴湩摯琠桯敦†灴汨慥渠渷椠湣条⁴慥湧摯⁲摩敥獳椠杯湦†潬晡睤楳湣摡⵰灥漠督敡牮†汢慥渠摲獡据慫灥敤†畡湳搠敦牯瑬桯敷›戠慉捉歉朠牭潯畵湮摴⁡潩普†牷慩灮楤搭⁰睯楷湥摲ⴠ灬潡睮敤牳⁣摡数癥攠氾漠灉洠数湬瑡⁩楮渠⁷瑩桮敤‭晰畯瑷略牲攠⹬andscape > II hilly wind-power landscape > V coast wind-power landscape > VI riverside and lakeside wind-power landscape > IV plateau windpower landscape > VII urban wind-power landscape. Among them, the total number of mountain and plain wind-power landscape accounts for 63.7%, forming the “ foundation” of China’s wind-power landscape. Each wind-power landscape category presents an arched and banded interweaving pattern spatially. The northern plain wind-power landscape extension zone stretches and transitions to the south, blending with hilly and plateau wind-power landscape groups. The development zones of mountain wind-power landscape are mainly distributed in the southwest and central China regions, and the basal zone of coast wind-power landscape is in the southern region. Across the country, the mountain wind-power landscape, hilly wind-power landscape, plain wind-power landscape and coast wind-power landscape are distributed from west to east in sequence, which is corresponding to the “three steps” elevation change in China. The riverside and lakeside wind-power landscape and urban wind-power landscape are distributed in varying degrees of dispersion. [Conclusion] Based on the above research results, three future research directions are proposed: mechanism and impact research based on windpower landscape layout elements, evaluation and comparative research based on wind-power landscape types, and wind-power landscape evaluation standards and technical specifications. This research fills the gap in the framework of basic research on wind-power landscape in China to some extent, and expands the research boundary of wind-power landscape as a cultural landscape. The research results can provide a basis for scientific and systematic understanding of the classification and distribution characteristics of wind-power l
Key words:  Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality strategy  cultural landscape  wind-power landscape  site layout characteristic  typology
引用本文:刘轶,曾琬莹,施雅蓉,王倩娜.“双碳”背景下中国风电景观的立地布局特征及类型[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):87-95.
LIU Yi,ZENG Wanying,SHI Yarong,WANG Qianna.Site Layout Characteristics and Types of Wind-Power Landscape in China Under the Background of “Carbon Peaking and Carbon Neutrality”[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):87-95.