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景观特征评估方法的分类及应用展望
王鑫, 唐孝祥, 白颖, 徐应锦
华南理工大学
摘要:
【目的】景观研究的多学科本质规定了景观特征的分类和识别存在不同的系统和方法。【方法】为确定主要的方法策略,通过系统性综述法对国内外57篇景观特征评估文献进行回顾。【结果】根据所应用的景观概念、客观程度以及评估过程中涉及的各类指标,划分出4种主要的评估方法类型:1)强调直观、整体地解释景观诸多方面的整体性景观特征评估法;2)揭示景观要素和属性的存在与变化梯度的生物物理景观特征评估法;3)反映景观资源及其对人的视觉舒适性影响的视觉景观特征评估法;4)探寻景观历史维度发展转变的历史景观特征评估法。【结论】4种景观特征评估方法之间存在实质性差异,没有任何一种景观特征评估方法可以适用所有目的。了解4种主要景观特征评估方法的方法学特性和优势,以评估目标为导向,综合考虑多种评估方法,加强优势互补,有助于实现中国景观特征评估体系和景观政策框架的构建。
关键词:  景观特征评估  类型学  系统性综述  模糊聚类  景观政策
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202302170074
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家自然科学基金“岭南道观园林空间演变机制研究”(编号 51978272)
Classification and Application Prospect of Methods for Landscape Character Assessment
WANG Xin, TANG Xiaoxiang, BAI Ying, XU Yingjin
South China University of Technology
Abstract:
[Objective] Developing a systematic understanding of landscape types and characters is a key prerequisite for the inheritance, continuity, protection and development of regional landscape. At present, the real issue in China that needs to be addressed urgently is the slow development of theoretical research and the low level of practical application. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of landscape research, there are different systems and methods for classifying and identifying landscape characters. In view of this, this research aims to clarify the main types of landscape character assessment (LCA) methods and their methodological features, goal orientation, classification system, application scope and practical utility, and further to reveal that the development of LCA methods can shed light on and contribute to the exploration of relevant indicator systems and landscape policy framework with Chinese characteristics. [Methods] This research conducts a systematic literature review and screens a collection of 57 literature in line with the review criteria from a total of 695 potentially relevant references published over the past 25 years. To find the essential characteristics of LCA methods, the research reviews the types and number of indicators used in the screened literature by statistical analysis, followed by a dataset analysis by the fuzzy cluster analysis method using the SPSS 20 software. [Results] The clustering results indicate that there are different preferences for certain aspects of landscape concept under different disciplinary roots. Four main assessment methods are identified in this research. 1) Holistic LCA approaches which focus on human perceptions of land and environment and the feelings, memories and associations they evoke. These methods try to identify the unique characters, values, and potential challenges of regional landscape through expert, intuitive and holistic interpretations of various aspects of the landscape during the assessment process. 2) Biophysical LCA approaches which define landscape as areas of patches or ecosystems where spatial interactions occur. They are used to capture the biodiversity potential of different landscape types by establishing a site-based framework, and to reveal the ecological functions and dynamic changes of landscape, as well as human impacts on landscape. 3) Visual LCA approaches which provide an integrated way of conceptualizing the environment and a useful spatial framework as well. These enable further reflection on issues related to a broad site and its use and development, so as to assess the significance of a certain landscape itself as an environmental resource and its impact on human visual comfort. 4) Historical LCA approaches which function by searching for vertical historical dimensions to establish a development framework for the governance of historical landscape covered by a multi-tiered scope of assessment. Through this framework, it is ensured that the unique historical value of regional landscape is preserved and continues to be passed on on the basis of sustainable development. [Conclusion] Although landscape is often viewed as a unified interdisciplinary concept, there are substantial differences between these four methods due to different concept connotations, analytical approaches adopted, and variable indicators selected. None of them can address all dimensions of landscape without making important tradeoffs. Meanwhile, the choice of methodology directly determines the applicability and effectiveness of the final assessment method in practical use. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a variety of assessment methods to build a landscape character assessment framework with Chinese characteristics, and thus achieve various assessment purposes and specific objectives. To base landscape research, planning and management on the realities of China, it is essential to test the relevance, accuracy and reliability of different assessment efforts in relation to China’s landscape policy outcomes and national land space planning system. And this will enable LCA to serve as an effective tool for sustainable development and land management, and for raising public awareness and guiding specific actions and decisions on landscape governance.
Key words:  landscape character assessment  typology  systematic review  fuzzy cluster  landscape policy
引用本文:王鑫,唐孝祥,白颖,徐应锦.景观特征评估方法的分类及应用展望[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):113-120.
WANG Xin,TANG Xiaoxiang,BAI Ying,XU Yingjin.Classification and Application Prospect of Methods for Landscape Character Assessment[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):113-120.