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黄浦江堤防工程景观化演变与型式特征
沈洁, 田娜
同济大学
摘要:
【目的】黄浦江的堤防工程呈现出明显的阶段演变特征,探究黄浦江堤防工程在不同历史阶段的演变过程和型式特征,对揭示防洪工程与城市环境变迁的关系具有重要意义。【方法】以黄浦江堤防修筑历史进程为主线,基于大量文献的阅读整理,梳理水情及治水方式变化对堤防型式演变过程的影响,探讨不同时期黄浦江堤防型式的具体表现。【结果】将黄浦江堤防型式发展总结为4个阶段:堤防工程的产生与发展时期(唐宋—元明)、堤防建设的承前启后时期(清末—民国)、堤防工程的现代化建设时期(新中国成立—20世纪末)、堤防建设的景观化发展时期(21世纪初至今)。【结论】梳理总结历代的防洪思想方略和工程实践建设发现:黄浦江的堤防建设总体呈现出综合化与景观化趋势。
关键词:  风景园林  设计研究  黄浦江  堤防型式  景观化演变
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202302170076
分类号:TU986.2
基金项目:
Landscape-Oriented Evolution and Type Characteristics of Huangpu River Embankment Projects
SHEN Jie, TIAN Na
Tongji University
Abstract:
[Objective] The embankment projects along the Huangpu River are clearly characterized by phased evolution. This research mainly aims to delve into the evolutionary processes and type characteristics of Huangpu River embankment projects across various historical periods, which holds profound significance in shedding light on the intricate relationship between flood control projects and the transformations in urban environments. By examining how these embankment projects have evolved over time, the research gains valuable insights into how flood control strategies have adapted to the changing needs of urban areas. This research may contribute to the understanding of how flood control measures have shaped and been shaped by the urban landscape along the Huangpu River throughout history. [Methods] Taking the historical construction process of embankments along the Huangpu River as the main research object, this research, based on an extensive review of literature, meticulously examines the impact of shifting water conditions and water management techniques on the evolution of embankment types, and explores the specific manifestations of the types of embankments along the Huangpu River in different periods. By tracing the historical progression of embankment construction and analyzing the evolving strategies for water control, the research offers valuable insights into how changing hydrological conditions have influenced the development of embankment types over time. The research expounds on the diverse expressions of embankment projects along the Huangpu River throughout history, contributing to a deeper understanding of the relationship between water management practice and embankment evolution. [Results] This research categorizes the history of embankment construction along the Huangpu River into four distinct phases, each representing a crucial era in flood control and urban development. The first phase, “ from Tang and Song dynasties to Yuan and Ming dynasties”, marks the inception and rise of embankment construction. During this period, embankments were mostly “ levees” closely tied to agricultural water management, serving flood control functions. The second phase, “from late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China”, represents a transitional period in the development of flood control technology, which highlights the inadequacy of traditional structural types in response to new water-related challenges and emphasizes the need for more advanced flood control projects to meet the growing demands of urban flood protection. The third phase, “from the founding of the People’s Republic of China to the late 20th century”, witnesses the comprehensive formation of modern flood control science. During this period, flood control projects evolved toward larger scales, reflecting the holistic concept of harmonizing humans with water in flood management. In addition, innovative flood control strategies became more prevalent. The fourth phase, “from the 21st century to present”, signifies the era of the aesthetic development of embankment construction. This phase has seen remarkable achievements in strategies and measures for enhancing comprehensive waterfront public spaces, during which mature models and methods for flood control landscape construction along the Huangpu River keep emerging. The historical division above sheds light on how embankment construction and flood control strategies have evolved in response to changing needs and circumstances, and underlines the importance of understanding the aforesaid developments to create more resilient and aesthetically pleasing flood control solutions in the future. [Conclusion] Through an extensive review and synthesis of historical flood control ideas and engineering practices, the research finds a discernible pattern in the embankment construction along the Huangpu River. This pattern can be classified into two major trends that have shaped the development of flood control measures. Firstly, there’s a prevailing trend towards comprehensiveness in flood control strategies. During Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, flood control strategies remained primarily focused on the simple practice of “building embankments”. However, during Qing Dynasty, the introduction of transportation and commercial functions along the waterfront marks a shift towards multifunctional strategies. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, flood control walls were further expanded both spatially and functionally. In the 21st century, the emphasis on creating “public open spaces” has driven the comprehensive development of waterfront areas along the Huangpu River. This approach comprehensively incorporates ecological, cultural and artistic functions into embankments. As Shanghai strives to solidify its status as an “international metropolis”, the functions of embankments along the Huangpu River are anticipated to be more diversified. Secondly, there’s a notable trend towards landscape integration. The comprehensive transformation of the Bund during the early days of the People’s Republic of China aimed to enhance public spaces. The emergence of dual-tier flood control walls towards the end of the 20th century provided the foundation for incorporating landscape functions. In the 21st century, various flood control types have been explored, transforming embankment systems into comprehensive projects that harmonize flood control, landscape design, and recreational activities. As flood control construction practices continue to evolve, urban water management projects are expanding beyond the singular focus on flood control needs. The integration of flood control measures with ecological preservation, environmental enhancement and socioeconomic development has become a primary consideration. The exemplary riverside development along the Huangpu River, serving as a model of flood control projects, is believed to offer valuable insights for other cities seeking holistic and sustainable solutions.
Key words:  landscape architecture  design research  Huangpu River  embankment type  landscape-oriented evolution
引用本文:沈洁,田娜.黄浦江堤防工程景观化演变与型式特征[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):121-129.
SHEN Jie,TIAN Na.Landscape-Oriented Evolution and Type Characteristics of Huangpu River Embankment Projects[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):121-129.