【打印本页】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器  关闭
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 42次   下载 43 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
“远”意的经验:中国传统园林中空间深度的非稳定性体验
杜心恬, 冀凤全
安徽建筑大学
摘要:
【目的】中国传统园林中存在的“空间深度”的非稳定性现象,在当代学者的研究中逐渐引发热议而备受关注。【方法】基于人的空间体验视角,采用建筑现象学的方法,结合历史文献及图像资料,分析在不同的园林空间情境中,游者是如何通过身体经验的变化扩大了对原本空间尺度的感知,形成了园林中对于“远”意的体验效果。【结果】3种园林空间类型:眼前有景、一隔两岸、无限空间,分别对应3种身体经验中“远”意效果的生成方式:意识中的情境变化、记忆的叠加与忘却、填补想象的世界。在园林体验中,意识的流动与身体的运动成为相互作用的2个力,在主体知觉形成的过程中都扮演着重要的角色。【结论】最终可以发现,以上3种对于园林“远”意的空间感知,体现的是头脑中意识运动的绵延,由此也呈现出异于西方传统透视学中的空间观念。这为中国园林设计实践、营造准则提供了理论支撑,也为园林文化的内涵予以了更进一步的阐释。
关键词:  中国传统园林  空间深度  身体经验  非稳定性体验  目标之景  路径
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202302170077
分类号:TU986.2
基金项目:安徽省自然科学基金“徽州传统聚落水系景观空间秩序、营建机制及对乡建理水的启示”(编号 2108085ME182)
Experience of the Sense of “Farness”: Instability of Spatial Depth in Traditional Chinese Gardens
DU Xintian, JI Fengquan
Anhui Jianzhu University
Abstract:
[Objective] The phenomenon of unstable “spatial depth” in traditional Chinese gardens originates in the creation of the spatial sense of “endlessness” in gardens, which has gradually aroused heated discussion among contemporary scholars. This research aims to reveal the reasons for the sense of “endlessness” of garden space experience. [Methods] From the perspective of physical experience, this research adopts the method of Phenomenology of Architecture, based on the search of relevant historical literature and image data and the exploration of “spatial depth” in traditional gardens, to analyze how, in different garden space contexts, travelers’ changing physical experience triggers changes in the conscious activities of their minds, thereby promoting the formation of subjective perception — expanding people’s perception of the original physical spatial scale, thus forming the sense of “farness” in gardens. In addition, this research not only combines historical literature and compares the ancient people’s spatial experience in gardens, but also returns to the real garden scenes, obtains firsthand information from real experience, and incorporates irrational factors such as emotion, consciousness, memory and perception of the subjects into discussion. Meanwhile, the research also adopts the method of “slicing” consciousness to decompose the physical experience during the process of garden travel, attempting to clarify the relationship between the formation of “artistic conception” and the “embodied” experience in traditional gardens. [Results] This research focuses on three types of Chinese traditional garden spaces: space with scenery; space separated by water; infinite space. 1) In the first type of garden space (space with scenery in front of the eyes), it is found that the changes in scenery in the process of garden travel enrich the garden scene we experience in our minds. Therefore, at the level of consciousness, the sense of spatial experience seems to be more abundant than the visual effect of distant view, that is why people can feel a sense of “farness” of garden space. From this, it can be concluded that the essence of this phenomenon is that we develop the desire for the “unattainable” scenery in front during movement. Because the impression of the “target scenery” in mind is constantly changing, the relatively stable concept of “time” originally measured by space has been destroyed by the instantaneous changes in the scenery. The existence of “space” defined in mind is no longer based on standardized time, leading to the change of instable perception of spatial depth. 2) In the second type of garden space (space separated by water), when people move toward the “target scenery” ahead, the three stages of consciousness flow are “confirmation of the target – disappearance of the target – reproduction of the target”. During the process, traditional gardens often provide instantaneous changes of scenery, with the “target scenery” disappearing and staying in our earliest memories. At the same time, the loss of original memories and the superposition of new memories expand our perception of the original spatial scale, thus forming a psychological artistic effect of “farness”. The psychedelic effect of instantaneous changes in scenery in the process of garden travel ultimately dissipates the purposefulness and directness of the garden journey. The original goal in front cannot be directly achieved, but gradually evolves into a spiritual wandering with gradually decreasing purposefulness. It should be noted that even if people are faced with the same “target scenery”, memory of the scenery will also constantly change. Only when we start to “travel”, “change” truly begins to happen. 3) In the third type of garden space (infinite space), emphasis is placed on shaping the sense of “infinity” in space in an attempt to push from the origin (where the traveler is located) towards an unbounded “infinity”, where “farness” means the “disappearance of boundary” , thus forming an endless and infinitely distant space. And this sense of “infinity” is completed by subjective imagination. However, it is completely different from the absolute static spatial concept molded in the Western traditional perspective. In traditional Chinese gardens, the essence of “infinite space” is a manifestation of a non-static cosmology, where space can be infinitely extended in imagination and generated by the existence of the subjects. [Conclusion] This research analyzes three types of instability experience of “spatial depth”, forming travelers’ perception of the “farness” effect in gardens. The three types of garden spaces proposed in this research, namely the space with scenery, space separated by water, and infinite space, respectively correspond to the generation of the “farness” effect in the three physical experiences: Change of scenery in the consciousness, superposition and loss of memory, and filling of the world of imagination. Meanwhile, these three types of garden spaces also present a completely different spatial concept from the traditional Western perspective. In traditional Chinese gardens, the flow of consciousness and the movement of physical body become two interacting forces, playing an important role in the formation of subjective perception. Meanwhile, it can also be seen that in traditional Chinese gardens, the perception of the artistic conception of garden is closely related to human physical experience. Only when you truly “enter” into it can this magical field be activated and the selfness of garden be revealed. Therefore, in the construction of the Chinese garden cosmology, the irrational factors such as memory, emotion, impression and consciousness of subjects will also become particularly important, ultimately promoting the integration of physical body, mind and environment. It is precisely under the influence of these factors that unique Chinese traditional garden culture has been formed.
Key words:  Chinese traditional garden  spatial depth  physical experience  instability experience  target scenery  path
引用本文:杜心恬,冀凤全.“远”意的经验:中国传统园林中空间深度的非稳定性体验[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):130-136.
DU Xintian,JI Fengquan.Experience of the Sense of “Farness”: Instability of Spatial Depth in Traditional Chinese Gardens[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):130-136.