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基于森林景观恢复策略的庄园遗产景观设计探寻——以荷兰海德兰省巴克塞比克地区为例
王颜姣, (荷)斯特芬·奈豪斯, (荷)鲍勃·乌尔森
代尔夫特理工大学
摘要:
庄园遗产景观是指包含花园和农业用地的历史乡村庄园集群。在气候变化、工业发展和快速城市化的背景下,庄园遗产景观正面临水生态环境失衡、空间碎片化和文化特征消失等挑战,而这些挑战只能从区域规划尺度去应对。以荷兰海德兰省巴克塞比克地区为例,在考虑地方景观异同的同时,以景观自身特性为基底,结合未来发展趋势,进一步诠释了一种旨在提升庄园遗产景观韧性的多尺度景观设计方法。发现森林砍伐为地域空间变化的主要因素之一,它对水系统与生态多样性造成了负面影响。基于在区域尺度上对庄园遗产景观历史发展的分析,森林景观恢复(FLR)作为主要设计策略,旨在从不同尺度上对“退化的”景观进行生态功能修复并提升人类福祉。这种新的空间设计方法将在不同尺度上促进文化遗产景观发展。
关键词:  多尺度设计  庄园遗产景观  韧性景观  设计方法  森林景观恢复
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.07.0039.15
分类号:TU986
基金项目:由海德兰省资助的“海德兰遗产景观设计地图集”项目(2018—2021 年)
Forest Landscape Restoration as Design Strategy for Resilient Heritage Estate Landscapes: The Case of the Baakse Beek Region, Gelderland Province, the Netherlands
WANG Yanjiao, (NLD) Steffen Nijhuis, (NLD) Bob Ursem
Delft University of Technology
Abstract:
Heritage estate landscapes are clusters of historical estates with their gardens and agricultural land. These heritage estate landscapes suffer from climate change (abundance and shortage of water), spatial fragmentation through urbanization, and loss of identity through economic tendencies. These challenges can only be addressed from a regional point of view that takes local differences into account and takes the landscape as the basis for future strategies for further development. This paper addresses an adaptive and multi-scale landscape design approach for developing a more resilient heritage estate landscape, taking the estate landscape in the Baakse Beek region (a region in the East of the Netherlands) as a case study. Deforestation is identified as one of the critical agents of spatial change in the region, causing significant water system problems and loss of biodiversity. Based on a regional analysis of the estate landscape's historical development, forest landscape restoration (FLR) is employed as a contextual design strategy to regain ecological functionality and enhance human wellbeing in the degraded landscape across scales. This paper showcases a multi-scale spatial design approach for developing cultural heritage landscapes.
Key words:  multi-scale design  heritage estate landscape  resilient landscape  design approach  forest landscape restoration
引用本文:王颜姣,(荷)斯特芬·奈豪斯,(荷)鲍勃·乌尔森.基于森林景观恢复策略的庄园遗产景观设计探寻——以荷兰海德兰省巴克塞比克地区为例[J].风景园林,2021,28(7):39-53.
WANG Yanjiao,(NLD) Steffen Nijhuis,(NLD) Bob Ursem.Forest Landscape Restoration as Design Strategy for Resilient Heritage Estate Landscapes: The Case of the Baakse Beek Region, Gelderland Province, the Netherlands[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(7):39-53.