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山地森林的碳捕获潜力:从全球角度看地方景观的韧性
(美)托马斯·A·克拉克1, 李正2
1.科罗拉多大学;2.北京林业大学
摘要:
在当今世界,森林是捕获碳以减少温室气体(GHG)净排放的主要场所,其通过这种方式减缓或扭转了全球变暖,从而缓和了变暖的负面后果。目前这种能力在多大程度上来自那些位于山地上的森林?这种能力是否可以或应该得到进一步的提升?怎样才能提高我们对山地森林碳捕获潜力的评估能力,以应对现在和将来的不同情况?许多国家已经承诺到2050年实现净零排放,主要是使能源生产中排放的CO2不超过他们能够吸收、保留乃至封存的量。因此,封存与减排的合作关系被提升了,减排通过向核电和可再生能源的转变以及通过能源用户的效率来实现。此外,在我们寻找更清洁和更划算的能源技术时,封存提供了一个近期的缓冲。从长远来看,封存可能会变得更加有效,从而更能分担温室气体的减排任务。尽管相关研究日益增多,但是还没有形成一套针对海洋、湿地、土壤和森林生物群落的封存潜力的评估方法。探讨与山林封存潜力评估需求相关的必要性和隐患。提高山林碳封存潜力的决心取决于:1)实现这一目标的难易程度;2)实现这一目标的机会成本;3)可在山地景观上进行的替代性使用和活动的效果和相互关系;4)替代性的海洋和陆地碳汇的比较效果;5)能源部门本身的去碳方法的成效。
关键词:  山地景观  全球变暖  碳封存  植树造林  碳平衡  温室气体排放  砍伐森林  反照率  碳中和
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.07.0054.15
分类号:TU024
基金项目:
The Potential of Mountain Forests in Carbon Capture: A Global Perspective on Local Landscape Resilience
(USA) Thomas A. Clark1, LI Zheng2
1.University of Colorado Denver;2.Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
The world’s forests are today a prime venue for carbon capture to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and by this means to slow or reverse global warming and thereby to moderate warming’s negative consequences. To what degree does this current capacity extend to forests on mountainous terrain? Can or should this capacity be further nurtured? How can we improve our ability to estimate mountain forest sequestration potential both now and in the future under alternate scenarios? Many nations are now said to have pledged to achieve net zero by 2050 by emitting no more carbon dioxide — principally in energy production — than they can absorb and retain, hence sequester. Sequestration is thus elevated in partnership with emissions reduction — the shift to nuclear and the renewables and through energy-user efficiencies. Sequestration moreover offers a near-term buffer as we search for cleaner and more cost-effective energy technologies. In the longer term sequestration itself may become more efficacious hence more able to share the burden of GHG reduction. Despite a burgeoning literature, however, methodologies have yet to evolve with which to gauge the sequestration potential of the oceans, wetlands, soils, and forest biomes. This narrative considers both the necessity and pitfalls associated with the need to estimate mountain forest sequestration potential. Just how determined must we be to elevate carbon sequestration potentials in mountain forests is found here to depend on 1) the ease with which such an end can be achieved, 2) the opportunity costs incurred in achieving this end, 3) the efficacy and mutuality of alternative uses and activities that could be pursued on mountain landscapes, 4) the comparative efficacy of alternate oceanic and terrestrial carbon sinks, and 5) the cost-effectiveness of decarbonization approaches in the energy sector itself.
Key words:  mountain landscapes  global warming  carbon sequestration  afforestation  carbon balance  greenhouse gas emissions  deforestation  albedo  carbon neutrality
引用本文:(美)托马斯·A·克拉克,李正.山地森林的碳捕获潜力:从全球角度看地方景观的韧性[J].风景园林,2021,28(7):54-68.
(USA) Thomas A. Clark,LI Zheng.The Potential of Mountain Forests in Carbon Capture: A Global Perspective on Local Landscape Resilience[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(7):54-68.