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中国古代都城中“宫”与“苑”空间关系变迁探析
张群, 李军
武汉大学
摘要:
“宫”是古代都城核心,“苑”是人为创设自然,探究两者间的空间关系是研究古代城镇空间组织的重要内容。以时间为脉络,通过图文结合、考古资料与历史文献互参的方法,对“宫”与“苑”的空间关系进行整体梳理,辨析其变迁特征及原因。提出宫、苑空间关系经历了4个阶段的变化。1)秦汉时期,“外苑”环绕包围宫城,“近苑”由宫城中独立分离。2)魏晋南北朝时期,宫城内出现独立的“御园”,且初步形成“前宫后苑”的范式。3)隋唐时期,形成宫殿与“御园”、宫城与“近苑”及宫城与“外苑”多个层面的空间交融和合关系。4)宋元明清时期,“外苑”已远离宫城而消失,“近苑”代之而围合宫城,“御园”也渐趋缩小,两者与城市中轴结合更趋紧密。整体而言,宫、苑空间关系变迁是由疏离趋紧密,由外而内,由简单粗略趋精致复合。这种变迁主要是受功能需求、都城形态及礼教秩序思想等因素综合影响而产生的。
关键词:  风景园林  中国传统园林  前宫后苑  中轴线  都城  宫城
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2021.08.0080.07
分类号:TU986
基金项目:国家社会科学基金(编号 19BSH097)
Analysis of the Spatial Relationship Changes Between “Palace” and “Garden” in Ancient Chinese Capital Cities
ZHANG Qun, LI Jun
Wuhan University
Abstract:
“Palace” was the core of ancient capital cities, while “garden” was an artificial creation of nature. Exploring their spatial relationship is important for the studies of the spatial organizations of ancient cities and towns. Following the time line, this research sorts out the overall spatial relationship between “palace” and “garden” through the combination of pictures and texts, combined with archaeological materials and historical documents, and analyzes the characteristics and causes of the changes between them. It puts forward that the spatial relationship between “palace” and “garden” has experienced four stages of changes. 1) During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the “outer imperial gardens” surrounded the imperial palace, and the “nearby imperial gardens” were separated from the imperial palace. 2) During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the “imperial gardens” were independent from the imperial palace, and basically formed the paradigm with “palace in the front, garden in the rear”. 3) In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there formed the spatial integration relationship at multiple levels between palace buildings and “imperial gardens”, imperial palace and “nearby imperial gardens”, and imperial palace and “outer imperial gardens”. 4) During the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, the “outer imperial gardens” were far away from the imperial palace and vanished. Instead, the imperial palace was surrounded by the “nearby imperial gardens”. The “imperial gardens” were also gradually narrowed. The “nearby imperial gardens” and “imperial gardens” had closer ties to the city axis. On the whole, the changes of spatial patterns tended to extend from the huge to the small, from the outside to the inside, and from the simple and sketch to the exquisite. They were mainly due to the comprehensive influences of functional requirements, capital morphology and ritual system.
Key words:  landscape architecture  Chinese traditional garden  palace in front, garden in rear  axis  capital city  imperial palace
引用本文:张群,李军.中国古代都城中“宫”与“苑”空间关系变迁探析[J].风景园林,2021,28(8):80-86.
ZHANG Qun,LI Jun.Analysis of the Spatial Relationship Changes Between “Palace” and “Garden” in Ancient Chinese Capital Cities[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2021, 28(8):80-86.