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城市森林建设背景下天敌保护型林地研究
刘芝若, 尹豪
北京林业大学
摘要:
远郊平原林地作为城市森林建设的一部分,由于承载着丰富庞大的生物量和复杂的群落结构,成为农业害虫天敌理想的栖息场所,构建天敌保护型林地对农业害虫的生态调控和实现生态系统的可持续发展具有重要意义。基于国内外文献研究,以天敌保护型林地为综述对象,梳理总结了林地与天敌栖息的关系,分析出林地在树种配置、群落结构和空间格局3个方面对天敌栖息的影响机制,并从4个层面提出合理配置及优化布局的天敌保护型林地营建策略,即营建异龄复层混交林、提升食源植物的比例、营建巢穴庇护空间和增强景观格局异质性,从而构建适宜天敌栖息的多样化林地环境,增强天敌的生态控害保益功能,以期实现城市森林功能的拓展、生物多样性的维持及生态服务功能的提升。
关键词:  生物多样性  生物防治  栖息地营建  城市森林  天敌保护型林地
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2022.09.0113.08
分类号:S718.52
基金项目:北京林业大学热点追踪项目(编号 2022BLRD05);北京市共建项目(编号 2019GJ-03)
Research on Woodlands for Conservation of Natural Enemies in View of Urban Forest Construction
LIU Zhiruo, YIN Hao
Beijing Forestry University
Abstract:
As a part of urban forest construction, the exurban plain woodlands have become an ideal habitat for natural enemies of agricultural pests because of their abundant biomass and complex community structure. The construction of woodlands for conservation of natural enemies is of great significance to the ecological regulation of agricultural pests and sustainable ecosystem development. Based on the research of domestic and foreign literature, this research, taking woodlands for conservation of natural enemies as the object of review, summarizes the relationship between woodlands and the inhabitation of natural enemies, analyzes the influencing mechanism of woodlands on the inhabitation of natural enemies in the three aspects of tree species configuration, community structure and spatial pattern, and proposes relevant construction strategies that can achieve rational configuration and layout optimization of woodlands for conservation of natural enemies from the following four dimensions: planting mixed forests of different ages, increasing the proportion of food source plants, building nest shelters, and enhancing the heterogeneity of landscape patterns. In this way, the research builds a diversified woodland environment suitable for the inhabitation of natural enemies that can enhance the function of natural enemies in controlling the harm to and protecting the benefits of the ecosystem, in hope of expanding urban forest functions, maintaining biodiversity and improving ecological service functions.
Key words:  biodiversity  biological control  habitat construction  urban forest  woodlands for conservation of natural enemies
引用本文:刘芝若,尹豪.城市森林建设背景下天敌保护型林地研究[J].风景园林,2022,29(9):113-120.
LIU Zhiruo,YIN Hao.Research on Woodlands for Conservation of Natural Enemies in View of Urban Forest Construction[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2022, 29(9):113-120.