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真山境界定位下的中小尺度园林中假山内外布局
乐志, 夏钰颉
南京林业大学
摘要:
学术界对园林假山营造应有真山之境这一观点已达成共识。但叠山布局的既有研究,主要着重于假山的造型和对空间的分割作用,并以较大尺度造园为主,而对空间局促、较小尺度园林中的石假山,则缺少结合造园布局来营造真山境界的相关成果。结合文献研究、实例分析和对叠山匠师作品的总结,探讨基于真山境界的假山相地、基地改造、叠山布局、其他造景要素的配合四方面内容,并得到4个结论:1)相地应从观赏假山主景的主观赏点出发;2)基地改造应以“渐入山中”为基准,以“物在山中”为标准,结合“游在山中”的路径规划,最终达成“山外有山”的调整目的;3)假山营造中,应注意展现真山之高、深、广三维尺度的不同布局技法;4)其他造景要素与假山的协调,不仅须符合“如在山中”的基本原则,还应有效弥补叠山的不足。围绕“真山境界”这一主题探讨造园布局相关问题,加深了对传统造园叠山技艺的系统性理解,可为假山遗产保护和造园实操应用提供指引。
关键词:  风景园林  遗产保护  叠山  真山意境  相地布局
DOI:10.14085/j.fjyl.2022.09.0121.07
分类号:TU986
基金项目:2021 年国家林业和草原局林业遗产与森林环境史研究中心项目
Internal and External Layout of Rockery in Small and Medium-Scale Gardens Under the Positioning of Realistic Mountain Scenery
YUE Zhi, XIA Yujie
Nanjing Forestry University
Abstract:
There is a consensus in academic circles that garden rockery should be created from a realistic perspective. However, existing research on rockery layout mainly focuses on the shape and space division role of rockery. It typically advocates large-scale gardening, while paying less attention to creating realistic mountain scenery by adjusting the gardening layout, especially for small-scale gardens with narrow space. Based on literature review, case study and summary of the works of rockery craftsmen, this research discusses, such aspects of realistic mountain scenery as site reconnaissance, site renovation, layout techniques and coordination between rockery and other elements from the realistic perspective of rockery making, and accordingly obtains the following four conclusions: 1) site reconnaissance should start from the main viewing point of the main rockery scenery; 2) site renovation should take “gradual integration into mountains” as the benchmark and “elements in the mountain” as the standard and, in combination with the path planning for “sightseeing in the mountains”, achieve the adjustment purpose of “mountains beyond mountains”; 3) rockery construction should reflect the three-dimensional scale of height, depth and breadth of realistic mountain scenery with different layout techniques; 4) the coordination between other elements and rockery should not only comply with the basic principle of “as in the mountains”, but also effectively complement rockery making. Through discussing relevant problems in the layout of gardening centering around the theme of “realistic mountain scenery”, the research deepens the systematic understanding of traditional gardening and rockery-making techniques and can provide guidance for the conservation of rockery heritage and the practical application of gardening techniques.
Key words:  landscape architecture  heritage conservation  rockery making  realistic mountain scenery  site reconnaissance and layout
引用本文:乐志,夏钰颉.真山境界定位下的中小尺度园林中假山内外布局[J].风景园林,2022,29(9):121-127.
YUE Zhi,XIA Yujie.Internal and External Layout of Rockery in Small and Medium-Scale Gardens Under the Positioning of Realistic Mountain Scenery[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2022, 29(9):121-127.