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城市基础设施建设融资制度演变背景下的公园城市建设策略
李云超1, 李雄2, 吴岩3, 王忠杰1
1.中国城市规划设计研究院;2.北京林业大学;3.同济大学
摘要:
【目的】从城市基础设施建设融资制度演变视角,厘清高速城镇化阶段和城镇化发展中后期阶段中国城市公园绿地的建设路径,分析当前公园绿地建设的可行模式,以助力公园城市建设。【方法】通过文献调查、历史研究、比较研究等方法,梳理了高速城镇化阶段的以地融资路径和城镇化发展中后期阶段的专项债融资路径的制度演变及公园绿地建设特点,并以2015—2020年成都市有关公园绿地建设专项债的发行文件为例,分析以地融资路径和专项债融资路径下公园绿地的建设差异及公园城市理念的适应性,分析公园城市理念下“场景营城、五态协同”策略与专项债融资路径的关系。【结果】1)以地融资路径与高速城镇化阶段相适应,保障了基础设施建设的资金来源和地方政府对城市建设的主导权,城市公园绿地随之高速增长。2)专项债融资路径是中央应对城镇化发展中后期的制度设计,本质上反映了对既有的、相对粗放的土地开发方式的认知深化,要求以更加精细化的模式对土地开发的长期经济效益进行预先安排和评估。3)专项债融资路径对公园绿地建设提出“项目自身平衡、长期多元偿债、项目捆绑实施、土地溢价偿债”的内在要求。4)公园城市建设理念要求进一步优化土地开发模式,提升城市的经济效益和环境水平,增强城市的区域竞争能力,与专项债融资路径需要核算长期收支平衡的思路高度匹配。5)“场景营城、五态协同”策略将公园绿地从城市建设的配套基础设施转变为城市发展的绿色触媒,进一步释放生态效益、社会效益和经济效益。【结论】公园城市理念及建设策略推动了公园绿地在生态、形态、仪态、业态和活态方面的转变,提升了自身“造血”能力,带动了周边区域的发展与融合,满足了人民群众日益增长的游憩需求,实现了生态价值的转化,适应当前的发展阶段,与专项债融资路径的特点和内在要求高度契合,是响应专项债融资路径及未来可能采用的其他新融资路径的有效抓手。
关键词:  风景园林  城市公园绿地  公园城市  城市基础设施建设融资制度  地方政府专项债
DOI:10.12409/j.fjyl.202306090268
分类号:TU986;F81
基金项目:
Strategy of Park City Construction Under the Background of the Evolution of Urban Infrastructure Construction Financing System
LI Yunchao1, LI Xiong2, WU Yan3, WANG Zhongjie1
1.China Academy of Urban Planning and Design;2.Beijing Forestry University;3.Tongji University
Abstract:
[Objective] From the perspective of the evolution of the financing system for urban infrastructure construction, this research clarifies the financing and construction paths for urban park green spaces in China during the high-speed urbanization stage and the middle and later stages of urbanization development, and analyzes the feasible models for current construction of urban park green spaces, in hope of contributing to the construction of Park City in the new development stage. [Methods] Through literature review, historical research, comparative research, and other methods, this research first sorts out the evolution of the path of landbased financing in the high-speed urbanization stage after the reform and opening up and the path of special bond financing in the middle and laterstages of urbanization development, and analyzes the construction characteristics of urban park green spaces under different paths. Then, taking the documents on special bonds for construction of urban park green spaces that were issued by Chengdu Municipality during the period from 2015 to 2020 as an example, the research analyzes the differences in the construction of urban park green spaces under the path of land-based financing and that of special bond financing, as well as the adaptability of the Park City concept. Finally, the research analyzes the relationship between the “scenario-based city construction and ecology-form-appearance-business format-vitality coordination” strategy and the construction path of special bond financing under the concept of Park City. [Results] 1) Since the reform and opening up, China has continuously adjusted its financing system and policies for urban infrastructure construction, based on the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and the Land Management Law of the People’s Republic of China, and under the constraints of the 1995 version of the Budget Law of the People’s Republic of China, gradually establishing a mature and effective path of land-based financing. With the land reserve system and the system of bidding, auction and listing for transfer as its core and the land injection and mortgage financing mechanism of urban investment company as intermediary, the aforesaid path can ensure the funding source for infrastructure construction and the local government’s leadership over urban construction. As a result, urban park green spaces have grown rapidly in almost every city in China. 2) With the promulgation and implementation of the 2015 version of the Budget Law of the People’s Republic of China and a series of financial policies, infrastructure construction has shifted to a new path led by local government special bond financing, ushering in a new chapter in the construction and renewal of urban park green spaces. The shift from the path of land-based financing to the path of special bond financing is a result of the institutional design of the central government in response to the middle and later stages of urbanization development. This essentially reflects a deepening understanding of existing and relatively extensive land development methods, requiring a more refined model for prearranging and evaluating the long-term economic benefits of land development. 3) Compared with the path of land-based financing, there are four significant differences in the planning, construction and operation of urban park green spaces in the path of special bond financing. Firstly, shifting from balancing debts with comprehensi敶癥攠汦潵灮浤敳渠瑦獲琠慲来敧Ⱪ慮湡摬†桤楥杶桥汬祯⁰慭汥楮杴渠⁴睯椠瑢桡瑡桮散⁩据桧愠牤慥换瑴敳爠楷獩瑴楨挠獩慤湥摰⁥楮湤瑥敮牴渠慰汲牪敥煣畴椠牦敵浮敤湳琬猠潢晪⁥瑣桴敩⁶灥慬瑹栠⁲潥晱⁵獩灲敥捳椠慵汲⁢扡潮渠摰⁡晲楫渠慧湲捥楥湮朠ⱳ⁰楡瑣⁥楳猠⁴慯渠⁤敥晶晥敬捯瑰椠癴敨⁥浩敲愠湯獷琠潤⁥牢整猠灲潥湰摡⁹瑭潥瑴栠散⁡灰慡瑢桩潩晴⁹献瀠敓捥楣慯汮⁤扬潹測搠⁳晨楩湦慴湩据楧渠杦⁲慯湭搠⁵潳瑩桮敧爠⁡渠敳睩晧楬湥愠湳捯極湲杣⁥瀠慯瑦栠獦⁵瑮桤慳琠⁴浯愠祲⁥扰敡⁹愠摤潥灢瑴敳搠⁩楮渠⁴瑨桥攠⁳晨畯瑲畴爠整⹥rm to using multiple sources of funds to repay debts in the long term, objectively requires urban park green spaces to improve their long-term operation and profitability. Thirdly, shifting from independent implementation of a single project to bundled implementation of multiple projects, objectively requires a deeper integration of urban park green spaces and surrounding lands. Fourthly, shifting from repaying debts with land transfer income to repaying debts with land premium income, objectively enhances the regional driving role of urban park green spaces. 4) The concept of Park City construction requires a specific planning and construction strategy of “scenariobased city construction and ecology-form-appearance-business format-vitality coordination”, to further optimize the land development mode, improve the economic and environmental level of the city, enhance the regional competitiveness of the city, and highly match the long-term income accounting balance of the path of special bond financing. 5) Under the concept of Park City construction, the strategy of “scenario-based city construction and ecology-formappearance-business format-vitality coordination” can transform urban park green spaces from a supporting infrastructure for urban construction to a green catalyst for urban development, further releasing ecological, social and economic benefits. [Conclusion] The concept of Park City and its construction strategy can promote the transformation of urban park green spaces in terms of ecology, form, appearance, business format and vitality, enhance their self-development capacity, drive the development and integration of surrounding areas, meet the growing recreational needs of people, achieve the transformation of ecological value, adapt to the current d
Key words:  landscape architecture  urban park green space  Park City  financing system for urban infrastructure construction  local government special bond
引用本文:李云超,李雄,吴岩,王忠杰.城市基础设施建设融资制度演变背景下的公园城市建设策略[J].风景园林,2023,30(11):35-43.
LI Yunchao,LI Xiong,WU Yan,WANG Zhongjie.Strategy of Park City Construction Under the Background of the Evolution of Urban Infrastructure Construction Financing System[J].Landscape Architecture Journal, 2023, 30(11):35-43.